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 栏目类别:知识点 >> 高中 >> 英语

主谓一致

  主谓一致的概念:

  谓语的数必须和主语的人称和数保持一致,这就叫主谓一致。

  主谓一致的基本原则:

  1)语法一致原则,即在语法形式上取得一致。例如,主语是单数形式,谓语动词也采取单数形式;主语是复数形式,谓语动词也采取复数形式。

  例如:The students are very young.

  This picture looks beautiful.

  2)意义一致原则,即从意义着眼处理一致关系。例如,主语形式虽是单数但意义是复数,谓语动词也采取复数形式;

  而有些主语形式虽是复数但意义上看作单数,谓语动词也采取单数形式。

  例如:The people in that country are fighting for independence.

  The crowd deeply respect their leader.

  Three years in a strange land seems a long time.

  3)就近原则,即谓语动词的单数或复数形式取决于最靠近它的词语。

  例如:Neither hen or I am going to see the film tonight because we are busy.

  几对容易混淆词组的一致用法:

  1、由“this/thatkind/typeof+名词”作主语,谓语动词用单数形式;而由"these/thosekind/typeof+复数名词”作主语,谓语动词用复数形式。

  例如:This kind of apples is highly priced.

  Those kind(s) of tests are good.

  2、由“a number of,a totalo f,an average of+复数名词”作主语,谓语动词用复数形式;由“the number of,the total of,the average of+复数名词”作主语,谓语动词用单数形式。

  例如:A number of students are waiting for the bus.

  The number of the students in this university is increasing yearly.

  3、one of,the(only) one of的一致用法

  例如:This is one of the books that have been recommended.

  This is the(only) one of the books that has been recommended.

  主谓一致用法点拨:

  1、并列结构作主语谓语用复数:

  如:Reading and writing are very important.

  注意:当主语由and连结时,如果它表示一个单一的概念,即指同一人或同一物时,谓语动词用单数,and此时连接的两个词前只有一个冠词。

  如:The iron and steel industry is very important to our life.

  典型例题:

  The League secretary and monitor___asked to make a speech at the meeting.

  A. is

  B. was

  C. are

  D. were

  答案:B.

  注:先从时态上考虑。这是过去发生的事情应用过去时,先排除A、C本题易误选D,因为The League secretary and monitor 好象是两个人,但仔细辨别,monitor前没有the,在英语中,当一人兼数职时只在第一个职务前加定冠词。后面的职务用and相连。这样本题主语为一个人,所以应选B。

  2、主谓一致中的靠近原则:

  1)当there be句型的主语是一系列事物时,谓语应与最邻近的主语保持一致。

  例如:There is a pen, a knife and several books on the desk.

  There are twenty boy-students and twenty-three girl-students in the class.

  2)当either…or…与neither…nor,连接两个主语时,谓语动词与最邻近的主语保持一致。

  如果句子是由here, there引导,而主语又不止一个时,谓语通常也和最邻近的主语一致。

  例如:Either you or she is to go.

  Here is a pen, a few envelops and some paper for you.

  3、谓语动词与前面的主语一致:

  当主语后面跟有with, together with, like, except, but, no less than, as well as等词引起的短语时,谓语动词与前面的主语一致。

  例如:The teacher together with some students is visiting the factory.

  He as well as I wants to go boating.

  4、谓语需用单数:

  1)代词each和由every, some, no, any等构成的复合代词作主语,或主语中含有each,every,谓语需用单数。

  例如:Each of us has a tape-recorder.

  2)当主语是一本书或一条格言时,谓语动词常用单数。

  例如:The Arabian Night is a book known to lovers of English.

  3)表示金钱,时间,价格或度量衡的复合名词作主语时,通常把这些名词看作一个整体,谓语一般用单数。(用复数也可,意思不变。)

  例如:Three weeks was allowed for making the necessary preparations.

  Ten yuan is enough.

  5、指代意义决定谓语的单复数:

  1)在代词what, which, who, none, some, any, more, most, all等词的单复数由其指代的词的单复数决定。

  例如:All is right. (一切顺利。)

  All are present. (所有人都到齐了。)

  2)集体名词作主语时,谓语的数要根据主语的意思来决定。

  例如:family, audience, crew, crowd, class, company, committee等词后用复数形式时,意为这个集体中的各个成员,用单数时表示该个集体。

  例如:His family isn't very large. 他家不是一个大家庭。

  His family are music lovers. 他的家人都是音乐爱好者。

  但集合名词people, police, cattle, poultry等在任何情况下都用复数形式。

  例如:Are there any police around?

  3)有些名词,如variety, number, population, proportion, majority等有时看作单数,有时看作复数。

  A number of+名词复数+复数动词。 The number of+名词复数+单数动词。

  例如:A number of books have lent out.

  The majority of the students like English.

  6、与后接名词或代词保持一致:

  1)用half of, part of, most of, a portion of等词引起主语时,动词通常与of后面的名词,代词保持一致。

  例如:Most of his money is spent on books.

  Most of the students are taking an active part in sports.

  2)在一些短语,如many a或more than one所修饰的词作主语时,谓语动词多用单数形式。

  但由more than…of作主语时,动词应与其后的名词或代词保持一致。

  例如:Many a person has read the novel. 许多人都读过这本书。

  More than 60percent of the students are from the city. 百分之六十多的学生都来自这个城市

  主谓一致知识体系:

  主谓一致用法拓展:

  1)当everyone,everybody,noone,nobody,anyone,anybody,someone,somebody,everything,anything,something,nothing等用作主语时,其相应的代词一般用单数形式。

  例如:If anybody calls, tell him that I'm out.

  Something strange happened, didn't it?

  2)人称代词与名词的呼应:人称代词I(me),he(him),she(her),it(it) 都是代替前面的单数名词,而they(them),we(us)则是代替复数名词的,you既可以代表单数,也可以代表复数。但表示泛指的时候,用he或one来表示。

  例如:If a young person enters a classical music field only for money, he is in the wrong profession.

  3)物主代词与名词的呼应:my,our,his,her,its,their要与代替的名词在数上一致。

  例如:The welfare department,as well as the other social services,will have its budget cut.

  4)反身代词与其所代成分间的呼应。

  例如:Many primitive people believed that by eating ananimal they could get some of the good qualities of that animal for themselves.

  5)指示代词与所代名词间的呼应:this和that指代单数名词或不可数名词,these和those指代复数名词(those还可以用作先行词,引导定语从句,表示“那些人”)。

  例如:She invited all those who had been her former colleagues.

  6)much和muchof后接不可数名词,而many和manyof后接可数名词的复数。

  例如:There is not much coal left.

  A great many of the houses were knocked down by the earthquake.

  7)表示量的词后面有的接可数名词,有的接不可数名词。

  接可数名词的有:a number of,a rangeof,a series of十复数名词;

  接不可数名词的有:a great deal of,an amount of十不可数名词;

  既可接可数又可接不可数名词的有:a lot of,a variety of。

  例如:1.The government attached a great deal of importance to education.

  2.Quiteanumberofwomenappliedforthisjob.

  3.The college library has avariety of books.

  4.An apple is avariety off ruit.

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