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 栏目类别:知识点 >> 高中 >> 英语

高中定语从句考点

  定语从句是在主句中作定语,紧跟在先行词(被修饰的名词)之后的从句。定语从句分为限制性的定语从句(从句在句中是不可缺少的部分,主句和从句之间不用逗号隔开)和非限制性的定语从句(从句是对主句的先行词的补充和说明,没有从句不影响主句的意思完整。主句和从句之间用逗号隔开)。定语从句一直是高考考查的重点内容。

  [关系代词和关系副词的选择]

  定语从句中关系代词和关系副词的选择主要根据先行词在定语从句中充当的成分来决定。如果它在句中作主语、宾语、表语或定语,则用关系代词who(m),that,which,as,whose;如果作状语,则用关系副词when,where,why。比较如下:

  who 指代人,在从句中作主语,间或作宾语。

  which 指代物,在从句中作主语或宾语。

  关系代词

  that 可用于指代人,也可以用于指代物;在从句中作主语或宾语。

  whose 表示所属关系,用于指代人或物,在从句中作定语。

  when 表示时间,在从句中作时间状语。

  关系副词

  where 表示地点,在从句中作地点状语。

  why 表示原因,在从句中作原因状语。

  实战演练

  1. Much to her relief,the research she had been devoted to in the past 20 years proved to be a great success and earned her many awards.

  2. Finally he reached a lonely island ______ was cut off from the outside world.

  3. George Orwell, real name was Eric Arthur,wrote many political novels and essays.

  4. He was born in the year the Anti-Japanese War broke out.

  5. There were dirty marks on her trousers , she had wiped her hands.

  答案 1. (that/which) 2. which/that 3. whose 4. when 5. where

  [that与which,who,whom的用法区别]

  1. 只能用关系代词that的情况

  当先行词为all,everything,anything,nothing,little,much,等不定代词时;

  当先行词被all,any,every,each,much,little,no,some,few等修饰时;

  当先行词有形容词最高级和序数词修饰时;

  当先行词既指人又指物时;

  当先行词被the only,the very修饰时;

  当句中已经有who或which时,为了避免重复时。

  2. 只用which,who,whom的情况

  在非限制性定语从句中,只能用which指代物,用who/whom指人;

  在由“介词+关系代词”引导的定语从句中,只能用which指物,whom指人;

  当先行词本身是that时,关系词用which,当先行词为those,one,he时多用who。

  实战演练

  1. Guilin is one of the most beautiful cities I have ever visited.

  2. Who has ever worked together with him doesn’t admire him?

  3. This is the very book I’m looking for.

  4. They are talking of the heroines and their deeds interest them.

  答案 1. that 2. that 3. that 4. that

  [特殊先行词引导的定语从句]

  1. 英语中一些特殊的先行词,如:case,degree,stage,point,position,situation,activity,business,family等,表示“情况、方面或处境”等含义时,而且关系词在从句中作抽象意义上的地点状语,意思是“到了某种地步,在某种境况中”,此时用where引导定语从句。

  2. 当先行词occasion,point,stage表示“时间点或时间段”,且其后的关系词在从句中作时间状语时,用when引导定语从句。

  3. 当先行词为way时,若在从句中作状语,表示“用这或那种方式/方法(=in this/that way)”时,通常不用关系词,偶尔用that,在较正式的文体里才用in which。若在从句中作主语或宾语,则用which或that。

  4. 当先行词为reason时,若在从句中作状语,用why引导定语从句。若在从句中作主语或宾语,则用which或that。

  实战演练

  1. Those successful deaf dancers think that dancing is an activity eyesight matters more than hearing.

  2. After graduation she reached a point in her career she needed to decide what to do.

  3. Occasions are quite rare I have the time to spend a day with my kids.

  答案 1. where 2. where 3. when

  [“介詞+关系代词”引导的定语从句]

  用于这种情况的关系代词一般是whom(指人、宾语),which(指物,宾语),whose(指人或物,定语),不可用that或who。在这种结构中,介词的选择遵循以下四个原则:

  1. 根据定语从句中的谓语动词确定介词,该动词与介词搭配,构成固定的动词短语。

  2. 根据定语从句中的形容词确定介词,该形容词与介词搭配,构成固定的形容词短语。

  3. 根据定语从句所修饰的名词确定介词,这些名词往往表示时间、地点、原因、方法、工具等,它们与介词有一定的联系。当“介词+关系代词”在定语从句中充当时间、地点、原因状语时,可分别用when,where和why替换。

  4. 根据句意确定介词。有些句子的先行词完全一样,定语从句中谓语动词不是由固定的动词短语构成,这时,要根据句子要表达的意思,选用不同的介词。

  实战演练

  1. I have forgotten the exact date which this country became independent.

  2. He made a few friends soon after he transferred to the new school, _ whose help he had no difficulty in fitting in.

  3. American women usually identify their best friend as someone with they can talk frequently.

  4. His head soon appeared out of the window, where he saw nothing but trees.

  答案 1. on 2. with 3. whom 4. from

  [which和as引导的非限制性定语从句]

  关系代词which引导非限制性定语从句时,除了指物外,更多的是指整个句子或主句的部分内容,在定语从句中作主语或者宾语。which引导的从句常置于句中或句末,译作“这,这一点”。

  as引导的非限制性定语从句可以置于主句之前、之后或期间,用逗号隔开,译作“正如……”。常用形式有:

  as we can see 正如我们所看到的

  as we had expected 正如我们所预料的

  as is shown in the figure 如图所示

  as引导非限制性定语从句还用于固定搭配,先行词与as,so,such,the same连用。如:

  There is so warm a house as we want to live in.

  She will marry as rich a man as she can find.

  注意 the same ... that ...表示“同一物”;the same ... as ...表示“同类人/物(另一个)”。如:

  This is the same pen that I lost.

  这就是我丢失的那支钢笔。

  This is the same pen as I lost.

  这是和我丢失的那支钢笔一模一样的钢笔。

  such ... as ...引导定语从句,意为“像……那样”;such ... that引导状语从句,意为“如此……以致……”。如:

  This is such an easy question as I can answer.

  这是一个我都能回答的简单问题。(定语从句)

  This is such an easy question that I can answer it.

  这个问题如此简单,我都能回答。(状语从句)

  实战演练

  1. Yeats once said,“Education is not a filling of a pail, but a lighting of a fire.”

  2. The Amazon Rainforest is named after the Amazon River, is the second longest in the world.

  3. He seems not to have grasped what I meant, greatly upsets me.

  4. Light travels much faster than sound, ,we all know.

  5. is announced in the papers,our country has launched another man-made satellite.

  6. Such books you want are sold out.

  答案 1. As 2. which 3. which 4. as 5. As

  [定語从句与同位语从句的区别]

  定语从句与同位语从句结构很相似,但它们有本质区别。定语从句对其前的先行词起修饰或限制的作用,定语从句的引导词在定语从句中充当一定的成分。同位语从句对其前的名词起解释、说明的作用,引导词that在同位语从句中不作任何成分,只起引导词的作用。如:

  We heard of the news that he didn’t want to tell us. (定语从句)

  We heard the news that our team had won the game. (同位语从句)

  实战演练

  1. The news ________ we had won the first place was true.

  2. The news ________ she told me yesterday was very important.

  3. The fact ________ the money has gone does not mean it was stolen.

  4. I can understand their eagerness ________ you should be the main speaker.

  答案 1. that 2. which/that 3. that 4. that

  [考查定语从句与地点状语从句的区别]

  where引导的定语从句与地点状语从句也很容易混淆。where引导的定语从句其前必须有一个表示地点的名词或代词充当先行词,定语从句对该名词或代词起修饰或限制的作用,where也可换成“介词+which”的形式。where引导的地点状语从句其前没有表示地点的名词,地点状语从句修饰整个主句,where也不能换成“介词+which”的形式。如:

  A new school building will be put up in the place where/in which there used to be a temple. (定语从句)

  A new school building will be put up where there used to be a temple. (状语从句)

  实战演练

  1. He wrote a letter _______ he explained what had happened in the accident.

  2. You’d better make a mark _______ you have any questions.

  3. Life is like a long race _______ we compete with others to go beyond ourselves.

  4. The church was built _______ there had once been a Roman temple.

  答案

  1. where

  2. Where

  3. where

  4. where

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