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 栏目类别:知识点 >> 初中 >> 英语

新目标英语八年级 (上)重点、考点归纳总结

  【重点词汇】

  1. mind

  (1) n. 心智;头脑;决心

  例如:

  A moment of fear went through my mind but I told myself to calm down since I was still alive. (片刻的恐惧掠过我的脑海,但我告诉自己要冷静下来,因为我还活着。)

  Several thoughts crossed my mind as I watched him work. (当我看着他干活时我脑海里闪现了几个念头。)

  (2) vt. 专心于,愿意做;介意;当心

  例如:

  She wouldn’t mind taking care of our children. (她不介意照顾我们的孩子。)

  Mind!There is a bus coming!(当心!车来

  了!)

  Mind the wet paint. (当心,油漆未干。)

  (3) 注意:

  mind作“介意”讲时,常用于疑问句、否定句或条件句中,后面跟动名词作宾语,不跟动词不定式。

  例如:

  Would you mind showing me how to start this online tour? (你能告诉我如何开始这个在线旅游吗?)

  Never mind. There’s still plenty of time for them to score. (没有关系。还有很多时间,他们可以得分。)

  I’m patient. I don’t mind waiting for people. (我很耐心。我不介意等人。)

  (4) 相关短语:

  make up one’s mind 下决心

  never mind 不用担心,别管;不要紧,没关系

  to my mind 依我看,我认为

  broaden/cultivate/enrich one’s mind 开阔心胸/陶冶情操/丰富思想

  mind one’s father and mother’s words 记住父母的话

  mind one’s teacher’s words 记住老师的话

  mind one’s work 专心于工作

  mind the baby 照看孩子

  mind the club 管理俱乐部

  mind the rules 服从规定

  mind the store 照料店铺

  mind the train 当心火车

  mind your own business 少管闲事

  mind out 当心,注意

  change one’s mind 改变主意

  put sb. in mind of sth. 让某人想起某事

  2. point

  (1) 作名词

  ① “得分;分数”

  例如:

  You get a point every time you answer a question correctly. (每次你正确回答一个问题就会得到一分。)

  ② “标点”

  例如:

  Please mark the sentence with points. (请给这个句子加标点。)

  ③ “点;小数点”

  例如:

  The line AB cuts the line CD at the point E. (直线AB与直线CD相交于E点。)

  ④ “地点;尖端”

  例如:

  I’ll wait for you at the meeting point in the hall. (我将在大厅的迎接点等你。)

  ⑤ “要点;论点;观点;看法”

  例如:

  He missed the whole point of my speech. (他完全没抓住我演讲的重点。)

  (2) 作动词

  vt. 用手指等指;(意思上)指向;削尖;加标点于;指路

  vi. 表明;指向

  例如:

  Just point the camera and press the button. (只要把照相机对准,然后按动快门就可以了。)

  (3) 相关短语:

  point at 指向;指示

  point out 指出

  point to 指向

  make one’s point (清楚地,有说服力地)阐明观点

  at all points 在各部分;在各方面;完全地

  hold the opposite point 持有相反的观点

  3. decide

  vt. 决定;解决;裁决

  vi. 拿定主意;判定

  (1) 接名词或代词

  例如:

  It’s important and it’ll decide your fate. (这很重要,将决定你的命运。)

  It’s your duty to decide this kind of question. (解决这种问题是你的职责。)

  (2) 接不定式及其复合结构

  例如:

  He decided to give a one-man show. (他决定唱一段独角戏。)

  We haven’t decided when to start. (我们还没决定何时动身。)

  (3) 接从句例如:

  Let’s first decide where we should go.=Let’s first decide where to go. (我们先决定一下到什么地方去。)

  It is not decided whether we will go there. (还没有决定我们是不是去那儿。)

  (4) 接介词短语(接on或upon,表示“就某事做出决定”)

  例如:

  Don’t decide on important matters too quickly. (对重要的事情不要匆忙做出决定。)

  注意:

  ① decide = make a decision = make up one’s mind

  ② decide to do的否定结构为decide not to do

  ③ 名词形式为decision

  (5) 相关短语:

  decide against... 决定不……

  decide between... 在……之间作出选择

  decide on... 决定……

  4. try

  (1) 作动词

  ① vt. 尝试;实验;试用

  例如:

  Someone had told the police that thieves would try to steal the diamonds. (有人向警方报告,说有人企图偷走这些钻石。)

  We’ll try to improve our teaching methods. (我们要设法改进教学方法。)

  ② vt. 审讯;审理;试穿;品尝

  例如:

  You can try Beijing Duck in one of the Chinese restaurants in Star Shopping Mall. (你可以在明星购物中心的中国餐馆里尝尝北京烤鸭。)

  ③ vi. 尝试,努力

  例如:

  Though you don’t feel well, try and eat a little. (虽然你不舒服,还是试着吃一点吧!)

  (2) 作名词

  n. 尝试,努力

  例如:

  Let me have a try. (让我再试一次。)

  (3) 相关短语:

  try on 试穿

  try out 试验,试用

  try to do sth. 努力做某事

  try doing sth. 尝试做某事

  (4) 考点

  try后面既可跟动名词也可跟不定式作宾语,try doing sth. 意为“试着做……”,try to do sth. 意为“努力做……;设法做……”。

  5. 辨析:information,news和message

  (1) information指“what you tell somebody”或“facts”,即“信息”或“资料;事实”。

  例如:

  Can you give me some information about trains to London? (您能不能给我一些开往伦敦的列车的资料?)

  (2) news指“words that tell people about things that have just happened”,即“消息;新闻”。

  例如:

  Have you heard the news? Betty is getting married. (你听说了吗?贝蒂要结婚了。)

  (3) message指“words that one person sends to another”,即“向他人传送的信息;消息”。

  例如:

  Could you give a message to Jenny, please? Please tell her I will be late. (请您给珍妮捎个口信行吗?请告诉她我会迟到。)

  简言之,三者在用途上有区别。message是“留言”,需要一个中间人,而另外两者大可不必。news是“新闻”,说出来得有令人触目惊心的感觉。information是“信息;消息”,不带感情色彩,为不可数名词。

  6. seem

  seem可用作连系动词或不及物动词,意为“似乎;好像”,其常见用法现归纳如下:

  (1) “主语+seem+(to be)+表语”,表语多为名词或形容词,有时是其他的词或短语,以说明主语的特征或状态。

  例如:

  Tom seems (to be) a very clever boy. (汤姆看上去是一个非常聪明的男孩。)

  This small town seems to have changed a little. (这个小城镇似乎有点儿变化。)

  (2)“主语+seem+不定式”,此句型中的seem与不定式一起构成复合谓语。

  例如:

  Mrs. Green doesn’t seem/seems not to like the idea. (格林夫人似乎不太喜欢这个主意。)

  The young man seemed to have changed much. (这个年轻人看起来变化很大。)

  (3) “It seems+that从句”,其中it是形式主语,that引导主语从句。

  例如:

  It seems that no one knows what has happened in the park. (似乎没有人知道公园里发生了什么事。)

  It seems to me that Mr. Brown will not come again. (在我看来布朗先生不会再来了。)

  (4) “There+seem to be+名词”,其中to be可省略。seem的单复数形式要根据后面作主语的名词的单复数形式而定。

  例如:

  There doesn’t seem to be much hope of our beating that team. (看来我们没有多大希望战胜那个队。)

  There seems no need to wait longer. (看来没有再等的必要了。)

  7. promise

  (1) 作动词

  v. 允诺;答应

  例如:

  Claire had made me promise to tell her the truth. (克莱尔要我保证把真相告诉她。)

  常用动词句型为:

  ① promise to do sth. (不定式作宾语)

  例如:

  I’m hoping you’ll keep your promise to come for a long visit. (我希望你遵守诺言来这儿多呆几天。)

  ② promise sb. to do sth. (后接双宾语)例如:

  He promises me to buy a bike as my birthday gift. (他承诺给我买一辆自行车作为我的生日礼物。)

  ③ promise (sb.)+that从句 (that从句为宾语从句)

  例如:

  He promises me that he will buy a bike as my birthday gift. (他承诺给我买一辆自行车作为我的生日礼物。)

  (2) 作名词

  ① 允诺;诺言

  例如:

  I hope that he will act up to his promise. (我希望他会履行他的诺言。)

  ② 希望;有前途

  例如:

  The boy first showed promise as an athlete in grade school. (这个男孩在上小学的时候就初次显示出成为运动员的潜力。)

  (3) 相关短语:

  give/make a promise 许诺

  carry out/keep a promise 遵守诺言

  break/go back on one’s promise 违背诺言

  promise sb. to do... 答应某人做……

  例如:

  In order to keep the promise, Murphy took Gloria to the nearest shop. (为了遵守诺言,墨菲带着葛洛莉去了最近的商店。)

  8. organize

  (1) v. 组织

  例如:

  There are also weekend visits organized to San Francisco and other places of interest in California. (也有组织去旧金山和加利福尼亚及其他名胜古迹的周末旅游。)

  Thank you for organizing the class trip. (谢谢你组织这次班级旅行。)

  (2) 同根词:

  organized adj. 有条理的;有组织的

  例如:

  On the one hand, children need organized activities. (一方面,孩子们需要有组织的活动。)

  9. possible

  adj. 可能的,有可能做得到的

  possible表示客观上潜在的可能性,也许实际发生的可能性并不大。possible一般不用表示人的词作主语,但若真的要用表示人的词作主语,possible后接不定式,这个不定式动作的逻辑宾语应是句子的主语,但此时的possible已经转意为“容易的”。常用结构有:

  (1) It is possible (for sb.) to do sth.

  例如:

  It is possible for us to get from Beijing to Tianjin in less than an hour. (我们有可能用不到1小时的时间就可从北京到达天津。)

  (2) It is possible+that从句。

  例如:

  It is possible that I might be of some use in that part of work. (在做那一部分工作时,我可能帮得上忙。)

  (3) 相关短语:

  if possible 可能的话

  【重点短语】

  1. feel like

  (1) 表示“摸起来像……”。

  例如:

  It feels like silk. (这东西摸起来像丝绸。)

  This feels like an orange. (这东西摸起来像个橙子。)

  (2) 表示“感觉像(是)……”。

  例如:

  My legs feel like cotton. (我感觉两条腿像棉花一样。)

  (3) 表示“有……的感觉”。

  例如:

  I’m surprised that he feels like that. (我很惊讶他竟然会有这种感觉。)

  (4) 表示“给人的感觉(像)是……”。

  例如:

  I was only there two days, but it felt like a week. (我只在那里呆了两天,但好像过了一个星期似的。)

  It’s been a year since her daughter died, but to her, it still feels like yesterday. (她女儿已过世一年了,但在她看来,这还仿佛像是在昨天。)

  (5)表示“想吃或喝……”。

  例如:

  Do you feel like a drink? (你想喝点什么吗?)

  (6)表示“想做……”。

  例如:

  I don’t feel like cooking. Let’s eat out. (我不想做饭,我们出去吃吧。)

  I don’t feel like waiting around for him to make up his mind. (我不能干等着他拿主意。)

  (7) 搭配

  ① 后接名词

  例如:

  Do you feel like a rest? (你想休息一下吗?)

  The material feels like velvet. (这料子摸起来像丝绒。)

  It feels like rain (snow). (像是要下雨/雪的样子。)

  注意:以上这句中的like后面的rain和snow是名词,不是动词。

  ② 后接代词

  例如:

  We’ll go for a walk if you feel like it. (你愿意的话,咱们就去散散步。)

  —Why did you do that? (你为什么那么做呢?)

  —Because I felt like it. (因为我想那么做。)

  注意:有时候接反身代词,表示觉得身体情况正常。有时like可省略。

  例如:

  I don’t feel like myself today. (我今天感到不太舒服。)

  He isn’t feeling himself this morning. (今天早上他感到不太舒服。)

  ③ 后接动名词

  例如:

  I feel like catching a cold. (我像是感冒了。)

  I felt like laughing, but I didn’t dare. (我想笑,但是不敢笑。)

  ④ 后接句子

  例如:

  I feel like I want to cry. (我觉得我想哭。)

  You feel like you could reach out and touch the space. (你感到仿佛能伸手摸到太空。)

  注意:后接句子时,其中的like相当于as if或as though。

  例如:

  I felt like (as if/as though) I was swimming. (我觉得好像在游泳似的。)

  Alice felt like (as if/as though) she was in a very nice dream. (艾丽斯觉得她好像在做一个美梦。)

  2. make a difference

  (1) “区别对待”

  例如:

  We should make a difference between new words and coinages. (我们应区别对待新词和生造词。)

  (2) “有影响;有关系”

  例如:

  John’s score on the test will make the difference between his passing or failing the course. (约翰这次考试的得分关系着他这门功课能否通过。)

  It won’t make much difference whether you go today or tomorrow. (你今天去或明天去没有多大关系。)

  (3) “起(重要)作用”

  例如:

  It shows that knowledge of first aid can make a real difference. (这表明懂得急救知识的确能发挥重要作用。)

  (4) 相关短语:

  make no difference 没有关系;没有重要性

  3. care about

  (1) “关心;关怀;惦念”

  例如:

  You don’t care about anything but yourself and your beautiful face. (你什么都不关心,除了你自己和你那张漂亮的脸。)

  A selfish person does not care about other people’s problem. (自私的人是不关心别人的困难的。)

  (2) “顾虑”

  例如:

  Don’t you care about losing your job? (你难道就不担心失去工作?)

  The first attempt may fail, but we don’t care about that. (第一次尝试可能会失败, 但是我们并不为此担忧。)

  (3) “在乎”

  例如:

  I don’t care about what happens. (我不在乎发生了什么事。)

  I don’t care about what you think; save your breath to cool your porridge!(我不在乎你怎么想,你省点力气,别白费口舌了!)

  (4) “对……感兴趣”

  例如:

  I don’t care about going fishing. (我对钓鱼不感兴趣。)

  (5)“喜欢;对……中意”

  例如:

  I really care about the students in my class. (我确实喜欢我班上的学生。)

  (6) 辨析:care about和care for

  ① 这两个词组中的care均为不及物动词,同介词一起构成及物短语动词,其后均接名词、代词或动名词。两者都可表示“对……担心(be worried about)”、“关心(feel solicitous about)”、“喜欢(like)”“和对……中意(be pleased by)”的意思。这时两者可以通用。

  例如:

  The first attempt may fail, but we don’t care about (for) that. (第一次尝试可能会失败,但是我们并不为此担忧。)

  The captain cares for (about) the safety of both the crew and the passengers. (船长为船员和旅客们的安全担心。)

  We do not care about (for) him in the least. (我们一点也不喜欢他。)

  She doesn’t care for (about) skating. (她不喜欢滑冰。)

  People here are thoughtful of others. They care about (for) each other. (这里的人总为别人考虑,他们互相关心。)

  They cared only for (about) their own personal promotion and prosperity. (他们只顾自己升官发财。)

  ② care about的主要意思是“在乎,在意(mind)”,常用于否定句,指主体对某一事物表现出无所谓的态度。

  例如:

  She didn’t care about anything people might say. (人们说什么她都不在乎。)

  They didn’t care about the expense. (他们对费用并不在意。)

  ③ care for还可表示“照料(look after)”、“尊重(have regard for)”和“愿意(want)”的意思。

  例如:

  Small children are well cared for in nurseries while their parents work in the fields. (当父母们在田里劳动的时候,孩子们在托儿所里受到良好照顾。)

  I do care for what he says. (我对他的话的确很在意。)

  Would you care for some tea? (你想要喝茶吗?)

  I don’t care very much for going there today. (今天我不太想到那儿去。)

  4. make up

  (1) “组成”

  例如:

  Women officers make up 13 per cent of the police force. (女警占警力的13%。)

  (2) “弥补;补足”

  例如:

  The government has refused to make up a £30,000 shortfall in funding. (政府拒不补上30,000英镑的资金缺口。)

  例如:

  They’ll have to make up time lost during the strike. (他们不得不加班弥补罢工耽误的时间。)

  (3) “编造”

  例如:

  I think it’s very unkind of you to make up stories about him. (我认为你编造他的谣言很不厚道。)

  (4) “化妆”

  例如:

  I can’t be bothered to make up my face. (我懒得化妆。)

  (5) 其他搭配

  ① make up one’s mind (下决心)

  例如:

  Make up your mind; you can’t have it both ways. (你决定吧,反正鱼与熊掌不可兼得。)

  ② make up the bed (整理床铺)

  例如:

  I’ll make up the bed in your old room. (我会把你原来房间的床铺整理好。)

  5. cut up

  (1) “切碎”

  例如:

  They never cut up the noodles because the long noodles are a symbol of long life. (他们从不切断面条,因为长面条是长寿的象征。)

  (2) “砍伤”

  例如:

  Her younger brother was cut up by a robber last week. (她弟弟上周被歹徒砍伤了。)

  (3) “插科打诨”

  例如:

  He often cut up in public. (他常常当众胡闹。)

  (4) 辨析:cut down

  ① “砍倒;把……砍倒”

  例如:

  He cut down the tree and cut it up for firewood. (他把树砍倒,并把它劈成烧火用的木柴。)

  ② “裁短;减少”

  例如:

  He cut down on coffee and cigarettes, and ate a balanced diet. (他喝咖啡和吸烟都比以前少了,饮食也均衡了。)

  6. 辨析:take care of,take after,take off,take out和take place

  take care of 照顾(同义词组为look after)

  take after 与……相像;追逐;效仿

  take off 起飞;脱下

  take out 拿出

  take place 发生

  例如:

  Mary asks for a day off today. She has to take care of her sick mother. (玛丽今天请了一天假。她得照看她生病的母亲。)

  【重点语法】

  1. 形容词、副词比较级和最高级

  (1) 形容词、副词比较级和最高级的构成

  ① 单音节词和以-y,-le,-ow,-er结尾的双音节词比较级和最高级的规则变化:

  ■

  ② 其他双音节词或多音节词,在该词前面加more/most。

  例如:beautiful→more beautiful→(the) most beautiful

  ③由形容词加-ly构成的双音节词和多音节词,都是在该词前加more/most。

  例如:quickly→more quickly→(the) most quickly

  difficultly→more difficultly→(the) most difficultly

  ④ 不规则变化:

  ■

  (2) 形容词比较级和最高级的用法:

  ① 原级的用法:

  用于两者之间对比,意思为“……和……相同”。结构为:“A+v.+as+形容词原级+as B”。

  例如:

  Tom is as honest as Jack. (Tom和Jack一样诚实。)

  Her skin is as white as snow. (她肤白如雪。)

  My dog is as old as that one. (我的狗和那只的年龄差不多。)

  He is not as/so tall as I. (他没有我高。)

  The weather here is not as/so cool as the weather in Harbin. (这里的天气没有像哈尔滨那样冷。)

  ② 比较级的用法:

  1) A+ 形容词比较级+ than+ B

  例如:

  Susan is happier than Jane. (Susan比Jane更快乐。)His brother is younger than me. (他的哥哥比我小。)

  Beijing is more beautiful than Osaka. (北京比大阪更美丽。)

  注意:形容词比较级前还可以用much,even,still,a little,far,a lot,a bit来修饰。very,so,too,quite不能修饰比较级。

  2) 数字+形容词比较级+ than

  例如:

  I’m two years older than you. (我比你大两岁。)

  She is a head taller than me. (她比我高一个头。)

  3) 比较级+and+比较级

  表示“越来越……”。

  例如:

  The earth is getting warmer and warmer. (地球越来越温暖了。)

  China becomes more and more strong. (中国变得越来越强大了。)

  4) the+比较级,the+比较级结构,表示“越……就越……”。

  例如:

  The more I study it, the more I like it. (越学它,我越喜欢它。)

  5) which/who+is+比较级

  例如:

  Which city is bigger, Beijing or Tianjin? (哪个城市更大,北京还是天津?)

  Who is happier, you or me? (谁更快乐,你还是我?)

  ③ 最高级用法:

  用于三者及以上的人或事物的比较,最高级前加the,最高级前有物主代词,序数词和名词所有格时,不加定冠词,后面跟带in或of表范围的短语。

  1) one of the+最高级

  例如:

  Shanghai is one of the most beautiful cities in China. (上海是中国最美的城市之一。)

  Our city is one of the safest cities in the world. (我们的城市是世界上最安全的城市之一。)

  Most people like apples. (大多数人都喜欢苹果。)

  Most of the boys are good. (大多数男孩都很好。)

  It is our nearest neighbor in space. (这是我们在太空中离得最近的邻居。)

  2) 最高级意义的表达方法

  ■

  (3) 副词比较级和最高级的用法:

  ① 原级主要的句型:

  1) as+副词原级+as

  Tom runs as fast as Jones. (Tom和Jones跑得一样快。)

  否定:not as/so+副词原级+as

  He didn’t come as/so early as Li Lei. (他来得没有李磊早。)

  2) too+副词原级+to do sth.

  Jean rides too slowly to catch up with me. (Jean骑得太慢,追不上我。)

  3) so+副词原级+that

  Jean rides so slowly that she can’t catch up with me. (Jean骑得太慢,追不上我。)

  4) 副词原级+enough to do sth.

  Jean doesn’t ride fast enough to catch up with me. (Jean骑得不够快,追不上我。)

  ② 比较级的用法:

  1) 比较级+than。当前后使用的动词相同时,通常用助动词来代替后面的动词,该动词或助动词可以省略。

  Lily runs faster than Mary (does). (Lily比Mary跑得更快。)

  2) 比较级+and+比较级

  The days are getting longer and longer in summer. (夏季白天变得越来越长。)

  3) the more... the more...

  The harder you work, the better you will learn. (你越努力就会学得越好。)

  ③ 最高级的用法:

  副词最高级前一般有the,也可省略。

  He works (the) hardest of all the students in the class. (他是班上最用功的学生。)

  2. 一般将来时

  一般将来时表示将来某一时刻将要发生的动作或状态,或将来某一段时间内经常的动作或状态。常常和表示将来的时间状语连用,如:tomorrow(明天),next week(下周),from now on(从现在开始),in the future(将来)等。

  (1) 基本结构及用法

  ① will/shall+动词原形

  这种方法一般单纯地表示将来某个时间将要发生的动作或存在的状态。will用于各种人称,常简略为“’ll”,并与主语连写在一起,如:I’ll,he’ll;shall只用于第一人称,在肯定句或否定句中表示将要或不会发生的事情或动作,在疑问句中可以表示建议或征求对方意见。变否定句在will/shall后加not,缩略形式为won’t;变疑问句把will/shall提到主语前。

  例如:

  I will/shall go to visit him next week. (下周我将去拜访他。)

  What time shall we go there tomorrow? (明天我们几点去那儿?)

  ② be going to+动词原形(否定句、疑问句的变化体现在be动词上)

  1) 表示计划、打算、准备做的事。

  例如:

  We are going to put up a building here. (我们打算在这里盖一栋楼。)

  How are you going to spend your holidays? (假期你准备怎样过?)

  2) 表示即将发生或肯定要发生的事。

  例如:

  I think it is going to snow. (我看要下雪了。)

  ③ 用现在进行时表示

  表示位置转移的动词(如:go,come,leave,start,arrive等),可用现在进行时表示将来时。

  例如:

  Uncle Wang is coming. (王叔叔就要来了。)

  (2) 常见考点

  对于一般将来时的考查,多以单选、句型转换或词语运用的形式考查学生在具体语境中灵活运用时态的能力。在考试中,会让大家判断是否该用一般将来时,以及如何正确使用。

  注意:

  There be结构的一般将来时,是容易失分的地方,要牢记它的结构:

  ① There will be...

  ② There is/are going to be...

  3. 情态动词

  情态动词的考查重点一般为:情态动词在一般疑问句中的问与答;情态动词表示猜测的用法。

  (1) 考查情态动词的基本用法

  一些情态动词的常用意义往往是考查的重点,须准确理解其含义并根据句子意思选择正确的情态动词。

  ① must和have to

  两者都表示“必须”的意思,但must含有说话人主观上的看法、态度;have to则表示客观上的需要。

  ② can和could

  两者都可用来表能力,意为“能够,会”;可用来表示许可(常用在口语中)或表示怀疑、惊异、不相信等态度(常用于否定句、疑问句或感叹句中)。

  ③ shall和should

  shall用于第一、三人称疑问句表示征求对方意见;用于第二、三人称肯定句或否定句表示说话人给予对方的“禁止、命令、警告、允诺或威胁”等。

  should用来表示建议、责任、义务时,可译为“应该,应当”,此时可用ought to替换;

  可用来表示惊讶、忧虑、赞叹等不满情绪(用在疑问句中);还可用来委婉地陈述自己的意见。

  ④ had better和would rather

  “had better+动词原形”意为“最好做……”,否定句式为“had better not+动词原形”;“would rather+动词原形”意为“宁可,宁愿”,否定句式为“would rather not+动词原形”。

  ⑤ used to

  “used to+动词原形”表示“过去常常做某事“或表示过去的一种惯常状态。

  ⑥ need和dare

  这两词既可做实义动词,又可做情态动词。作为情态动词,两者都只能用于疑问句,否定句和条件句。need指“需要”,否定形式need not指“不必做……”;dare指“敢做……”,否定形式dare not指“不敢做……”。

  (2) 考查情态动词表推测的用法

  ① 对现在或将来的推测用“情态动词+ 动词原形”。

  肯定的推测一般用must,should,may(might)或can(could),其中,must的语气最强。意为“肯定”、“准是”、“想必是”;should的语气次之,意为“很可能”、“应该”,指按常理推测;may(might),can(could)的语气最弱,意为“有时会”、“也许”、“可能”。

  否定推测分为两种情况:语气不很肯定时,常用may/ might/ could not,意为“可能不”、“也许不”;否定语气较强时,则用can’t,意为“根本不可能”、“一定不能”,表示惊异、怀疑的感情色彩。

  ② must表示推测

  1) must用在肯定句中表示较有把握的推测,意为“一定”。

  2) must表对现在的状态或现在正发生的事情的推测时,must后面通常接系动词be的原形或行为动词的进行式。

  例如:

  You have worked hard all day. You must be tired. (你辛苦工作了一整天,一定累了。) [对现在情况的推测、判断]

  He must be working in his office. (他一定在办公室工作呢。)

  试比较:

  He must be staying there. (他现在肯定在那里。)

  He must stay there. (他必须呆在那。)

  ③ 否定推测用can’t。

  例如:

  If Tom didn’t leave here until five o’clock, he can’t be home yet. (如果汤姆五点才离开这儿,他此时一定还未到家。) [表示推测的用法]

  ④ can,could,may,might和must 皆可表示推测,其用法如下:

  1) 情态动词+动词原形,表示对现在或将来的情况的推测,此时动词通常为系动词。

  例如:

  I don’t know where she is, she may be in Wuhan. (我不知道她在哪儿,可能在武汉。)

  2) 情态动词+动词现在进行时,表示对现在或将来正在进行的情况进行推测。

  例如:

  At this moment, our teacher must be correcting our exam papers. (这时,想必我们老师正在批改试卷。)

  (3) 情态动词的回答方式

  4. 祈使句

  用于表达命令、请求、劝告、警告、禁止等的句子叫做祈使句,祈使句通常省略主语,谓语动词用原形,句尾用感叹号或句号。

  (1) 肯定结构

  ① 动词原形(宾语)+其他成分

  例如:

  Please have a seat here. (请这边坐。)

  有的祈使句在意思明确的情况下,动词可省略。

  例如:

  This way, please. = Go this way, please. (请这边走。)

  ② be+表语(名词或形容词)+其他成分

  例如:

  Be a good boy!(要做一个好孩子!)

  ③ let+宾语+动词原形+其它成分

  例如:

  Let me help you. (让我来帮你。)

  (2) 否定结构

  ① don’t+动词原形+其他成分

  例如:

  Don’t forget me!(不要忘记我!)

  Don’t be late for school!(上学不要迟到!)② let+宾语+not+动词原形+其他成分

  例如:

  Let him not go. (别让他走。)

  ③ 有些可用no开头,用来表示禁止性的祈使句。

  例如:

  No smoking!(禁止吸烟!)

  【口语交际】

  1. 询问别人的观点和对某人/某事进行评价

  询问别人的观点和对某人/某事进行评价常用以下句型:

  (1)“What do you think of+名词/代词/动词-ing?”意思是“你认为……怎么样?”回答有不同的方式。

  例如:

  ① —What do you think of Beijing Opera? (你认为京剧怎么样?)

  —I can’t stand it. (我不能忍受它。)

  ② —What do you think of going to travel to Beijing? (你认为去北京旅游怎么样?)

  —I don’t mind it. (我不介意。)

  (2) “How do you like...? ”用来询问对方观点,与“What do you think of...?”意思相同。

  例如:

  ① —How do you like Hero? (你觉得《英雄》这部电影怎么样?)

  —It’s not too bad. (还可以。)

  ② —How do you like Chinese food? (你觉得中国菜怎么样?)

  —Oh, I love it./ I don’t like it. (哦,我爱吃。/我不喜欢。)

  2. 邀请与应答

  (1) 用一般疑问句形式

  ① Will/ would/ can/ could you come to...? 表示“请您来……好吗?”。在被邀请人接受的可能性较大的情况下使用。

  例如:

  Will you come to take part in my party? (你来参加我的聚会好吗?)

  ② Would you like+名词(代词)/不定式/sb. +不定式?

  此句型表示“您愿意……吗?”或“你是否愿意……?”,此时邀请人不知对方是否接受邀请,是商量、询问及试探性的邀请、请求或表示个人的想法、看法。

  例如:

  —Would you like to go there with him? (你愿意与他一起去那儿吗?)

  —Yes, I’d like (love) to. (好的,我愿意。)

  类似的肯定回答的表达法有:

  Yes, I’d be happy to. (好的,我很乐意。)

  Yes, it’s very kind/ nice of you to invite me. (好的,谢谢您邀请我。)

  Yes, it’s very kind of you. (真是太好了,谢谢。)

  (2) 用陈述句形式

  I like sb. to do sth./ I’d like you to come to...这是向某人发出邀请的常见句式。表示“希望(想叫)某人做某事”,常与would连用,是一种客气的邀请。

  例如:

  —I’d like to invite you to see a film with me. (我想请你和我一起去看电影。)

  —I’d like (love) to, but I’m very busy. (我很想,但我很忙。)

  类似的委婉拒绝的表达法有:

  I’d love to... But I’m afraid... (我想去,但是恐怕……)

  Thank you for inviting me./ It’s very kind of you to invite me, but I’m busy. (谢谢你邀请我,但我很忙。)

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