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 栏目类别:知识点 >> 小学 >> 英语

倒装句

  倒装句:

  为了强调、突出等语用目的而颠倒原有语序的句式叫做倒装句。

  在英语中,我们把主语在前谓语动词在后的句子叫陈述句,把谓语动词放在主语前面的句子叫倒装句。

  完全倒装和部分倒装:

  如果全部谓语放在主语之前,叫完全倒装;

  如果只把助动词或情态动词放在主语之前就叫部分倒装。

  A、完全倒装

  a. 用于there be句型。 例:

  There are some students in the classroom. 教室里有几位学生。

  There is a tall tree in front of the classroom. 教室的前面有一棵大树。

  b. 用于“here(there, now, then)+实义动词+主语”的句型中,或以 in,out,up,down,away 等副词开头的句子里,以表示强调。 例:

  Here comes the bus. 汽车来了。

  There goes the bell. 铃响了。

  Now comes your turn. 现在轮到你了。

  Out went the children. 孩子们出去了。

  注意:

  a.主语是代词时,主语和谓语不能倒装。

  b.here,there 放在句首通常用一般现在时。 例:

  Here it is. 给你。(你要的东西在这儿。)

  Here he comes. 他来了。

  c.用于so,neither,nor开头的句子,表示重复前句的部分内容。原句的谓语应与前句的谓语的时态、形式相一致。

  He has been to Canada. So have I. 他去过加拿大,我也去过。

  You can't speak French. Neither can she. 你不会说法语,她也不会。

  表示前面所述的情况也适合于后面一个人或事物,通常在so后用倒装句式(部分倒装用一般问句的形式):

  He likes English. So do I. 他喜欢英语,我也一样。

  He was ill and so were his parents. 他病了,他父母也病了。

  但是如果前面所述情况为否定式,则用neither,nor引出倒装句(此时不能用so):

  He couldn’t do it, and neither could she. 他做不了,她也做不了。

  He never comes late. Nor do I. 他从不迟到,我也从不迟到。

  后一句子若只是重复前句的意思,起加强语气的作用,so后面不用倒装句式:

  —He has done a good job. 他干得不错。

  —So he has. 他的确干得不错。

  B、部分倒装。(小学阶段出现情况较少,在此不作进一步解释)

  倒装句使用情况:

  1. 在以here,there,up,in,out,away,off等表示方位的副词开头的句子里, 主语是名词时,句子要用倒装,以示强调;但主语是代词时,主谓不倒装。如:

  Away flew the birds.

  Out rushed the children.

  There goes the bell.

  2. 以only修饰的副词、介词短语或状语从句(自身不倒装)位于句首时,常用倒装句。如:

  Only when the war was over in 1949 was he able to go to school.

  Only in a big city was it possible for him to buy a wheelchair.

  Only after I read the text over again did I know its main idea..

  3. 在so(肯定句),neither和nor(否定句)引起的句子中, 表示上文所讲的某种情况“也”适合于下文的另一人物时, 用倒装。如:

  Lucy likes China. So does Lily.

  Tom doesn’t like bananas. Neither/Nor do I.

  【注意】如果so不是表示“也”的意思,而是表示“的确”、“果真如此”时,即使它位于句子开头也不用倒装的形式;

  另外,如果在讲前面的某种情况时既含有动作动词又含有be动词,(或者前面所讲的情况既有肯定又有否定或者两个主语既有人又有物),再讲后面的另一人物“也”是这样时,要用so的特殊句型, 但还是用正常语序。如:

  John won first prize in the contest. So he did.

  She is a good girl and she likes English very much. So it is with Han Mei.

  Lucy is an American, she doesn’t like Chinese tea. So it is with Lily.

  4. 在so…that(如此…以至于)句型中,如果so连同状语一起位于句首时,也用倒装形式。如:

  So tired was he after a long journey that he couldn’t stay up.

  5. 在as以引导的让步状语从句中,谓语动词以后的部分倒装(提到as之前)。如:

  Young(Child)as he is,he knows a lot about computer.

  【注意】在as引导的这种倒装的让步状语从句中,被倒装的部分一般分为三种:

  表语、状语和动词原形。如果表语是不带定语的单数可数名词,前边的a(an)要省去;

  被倒装的动词原形常与may、might、will、would等词连用,而这些词都要保留在原来的位置上。

  此外,这个倒装在句首的动词原形不能是连系动词(若是连系动词,倒装的部分是表语),一般多为不及物动词。再看另外的两个例句:

  Much as I hate him, I will not kill him.

  Try as he might, Tom could not find a job.

  6. 表示否定意义的副词或连词位于句首时,要用倒装。常见的这类词语有:

  not、never、seldom、rarely、hardly、by no means、in no time、little等。如:

  Never shall I forget the day.

  Little did I know when I took the trip where it would lead me.

  By no means shall we understand you.

  7. 省略if的倒装

  在if引导的虚拟语气中,谓语动词有were、had或should等时,可以将if省掉,把这些词语移到主语之前。如:

  Were I you(=If I were you), I would do thework better.

  Had they time (=If they had time) ,they should certainly come and help us.

  Should there be a flood (=If there should be a flood), what should we do?

  8. such表示“这样的人/事”时, (系动词往往是be动词),当such位于句首时,就要用倒装。如:Such would be our home in the future.

  Such was Albert Einstein, a simple man and the 20th century’s greatest scientist.

  9. 几个否定关联词组连接的两并列分句

  ①. not only…but(also)…连接的分句前倒后正。如:Not only was the city polluted but (also) the streets were crowed.

  ②. no sooner... than;hardly…when…; scarcely…when (before)…等连接的分句前倒后正。如:

  No sooner had he finished the talk than a man stood up and put forward a question.

  Hardly had we got to the bus stop when the bus arrived.

  ③. not until…连接的分句前正后倒。如:

  Not until Mr. Smith came to China did he know what kind of a country she is.

  Not until all the fish died in the river did the villagers realize how serious the pollution was.

  ④. neither…nor…连接的分句前后都倒,并且每个分句一般都是部分倒装。

  用于部分倒装的情况:

  1.表示否定意义或半否定意义的词置于句首时。常见的有seldom,never,hardly,no not,little 等。

  2.由 only,not until 引导的状语置于句首时。

  3.no sooner…than, hardly…when等结构中,no sooner 和hardly 置于句首时主语用部分倒装。

  4.在so/such…that 引导的结果状语从句中,so/such引导的部分置于句首时主句用倒装。

  5. “so/neither/nor+be/助动词/情态动词+主语”so与前面的肯定句呼应,nor, neither 与后面的否定句呼应。其中的动词形式取决于前一句的动词。表示前者的情况也适用于后者或一者具备两种情况。

  6.省略if的虚拟条件句以had/were/should 开头引起的倒装。

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