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 栏目类别:学习方法 >> 初中 >> 英语

中考应用文英语作文写作方法和技巧

  中考英语写作是考查学生语言综合运用能力和平时阅读词汇量的重要组成部分,在中考试卷中占有较大的分值比重。近些年,各地中考英语书面表达大量采用宣传海报、书信、邮件、通知、日记、倡议书等应用文形式,结合课标要求掌握的话题项目,联系学生的日常活动、兴趣爱好、学校生活、计划与安排等,体现语言的真实运用。同学们要想在应用文写作中获得高分,在中考复习过程中,一定要明确应用文的写作特点,把握中考英语书面表达的评分标准,积极做好语言知识的积累并进行系统的、有针对性的训练。下面,我们将结合2015年各地中考试题,学习各类应用文的写作要领。

  一、日记

  日记通常以第一人称进行写作,运用过去时态,记录某一天的生活经历,包括所见、所闻、所做的事情及感想等。进行日记写作时要注意以下几个方面。

  (一)日记的格式

  英文日记的格式与中文日记基本一致。左上角是:星期和日期(年、月、日)。右上角写上当天的天气情况(如:Sunny, Fine, Rainy, Windy, Snowy, Cloudy等)。具体如下:

  日期表达有多种形式。年、月、日都写时,通常以月、日、年为顺序,月份可以缩写,日和年用逗号隔开。例如:

  October 1, 2015 / October 1st, 2015

  也可缩写成:

  Oct. 1, 2015 / Oct. 1st, 2015

  the 1st of October in 2015(用此格式时,月份不可以缩写)

  注:以上的1或1st都读作the first。

  星期可以省略不写,也可将其放在日期之前或之后,星期和日期之间不用标点,但要留有空格,星期也可缩写。如:

  Saturday, October 3rd, 2015

  October 3rd, 2015 Saturday

  天气一般用一个形容词(如Cloudy, Sunny,Fine,Rainy,Snowy 等)表示,位置在日期之后,用逗号隔开,位于日记的右上角。如:

  Saturday, October 3, 2015, Sunny

  1st October, 2015, Rainy

  (二)日记的正文

  日记的正文是日记的主要部分,写在星期和日期的正下方,可以顶格写,也可以内缩3至5个字母的空间。由于日记记载的内容一般已经发生,谓语动词通常用一般过去时。但也可根据具体情况,用其他时态。例如,记叙天气、描写景色时,为了描写生动,可以使用现在时,以表现当时的情景。再如,文后发表感想或评论可用现在时态或将来时态。记日记力求简单明了,有连贯性。若有文字提示,则应重视提示,把握要点。在句式上尽量采用丰富的表达形式,以免造成句式单调。正文的写作通常采用“总—分—总”的形式:首先,对一天的活动作一个总体性的交代;接着,将一天所经历的主要事情和过程记录下来,可以依照时间顺序,也可以是空间方位顺序等;再者,对整个活动过程进行小结,并表达个人的感受等。

  下面以2015年部分地区的中考试题为例,来学习日记的具体写作。

  中考题例:

  (2015年恩施卷)根据下列提示信息,用英语写一篇不少于80词的日记。

  提示:

  1. 著名教授Mr. Robert今天(6月5日,星期五,晴)上午来你校作了一场报告;

  2. 其报告内容包括:

  如何与同学友好相处;

  如何与家长、老师有效沟通;

  如何控制不良情绪。

  3. 这场报告对今后的学习和生活都很重要。

  要求:

  1.日记中必须包含提示中的所有要点;

  2.不要逐句翻译,可适当发挥;

  3.必须用第一人称写作;

  4.条理清晰,书写规范;

  5.文中不得出现真实人名和校名等相关信息;

  6.日记的开头已经写好,不计入总词数。

  参考词汇:

  有效地effectively 教授professor

  Friday, June 5th Sunny

  解题指导:

  【审题】

  1. 体裁:日记,用第一人称写。

  2. 内容:教授报告,三大要点要全部覆盖。

  3. 主体时态:一般过去时。

  4. 开放的内容:自己的感受。

  5. 词数:不少于80词。

  【写作指导】

  [文章结构内容要点开头:总体交代主要事件来校作报告(came to our school to give us a report) 正文:报告的三大主要内容1.如何与同学友好相处(how to get along well with classmates)

  2. 如何与家长、老师有效沟通(how to communicate with parents and teachers effectively)

  3.如何控制自己的情绪(how to control ourselves)结尾:我的感受开放的内容]

  【参考范文】

  Friday, June 5th Sunny

  This morning Mr. Robert, a famous professor, came to our school to give us a useful report.

  He told us how we could get along well with our classmates. He said that honesty is the best way. He also taught us how to communicate with our parents and teachers. When he talked about how we can control ourselves, he said, “Count to ten when you get angry.”

  I learned an important lesson from Mr. Robert. Im sure his report will help us study better and live a happier life in future.

  拓展训练:

  (2015年黔南卷)今天(3月15日)上午你去参加了英语俱乐部活动,请根据提示写一篇日记。

  要点提示:

  1. 简介:英语俱乐部成立于三年前;

  2. 地点:家附近的公园;

  3. 内容:许多学生参加,还有大学生和外国朋友。练听力、口语,谈谈感兴趣的事,交流学习英语的经验;

  4. 感受。

  要求:

  1. 必须用上以上所有信息,可适当发挥;

  2. 要求句子连贯,语句通顺,书写规范;

  3. 词数不少于80词,开头部分已给出,不计入总词数;

  4. 文中不得出现真实的人名、校名等相关信息。

  参考词汇:

  English club, found, college, take part in, practice doing, exchange, experience, improve

  Sunday March 15th, 2015 Sunny

  【参考范文】

  Sunday March 15th, 2015 Sunny

  This morning I went to the English club that is in the park near my home. It is three years since it was founded. Many middle school students as well as college students and foreigners took part in the activity. People there practiced listening and spoken English by talking about something interesting, and people also exchanged the experience in English learning. I think it is a good chance for me to speak with them and use what I have learnt in my English class. In this way I can improve my English, especially listening and speaking and I can also make a lot of friends there. I felt very happy after I got back.

  二、书信

  书信是重要的交际工具。英文书信是中考英语写作最常出现的应用文体。英文书信分为两大类:公务信件和私人信件。中考试题考查私人信件的书写,类型比较丰富。书信的基本格式如下:

  [称呼

  正文

  结束语

  署名]

  下面以2015年部分地区的中考试题为例,学习不同类型的书信的写作。

  (一)申请信

  中考题例:

  (2015年温州卷)美中文化交流中心(ACCEC)暑期将组织学生来华学习、交流,现正在中国招募志愿者,帮助他们学习中文。假如你是扬帆中学的学生李平,请按照要求给该项目负责人Mr. Miller写一封申请信。

  内容包括:

  1.申请担任志愿者;

  2.自己乐于助人、擅长中文;

  3.谈谈学好中文的方法;

  4. ……

  参考词汇:

  volunteer, be good at, improve, culture

  注意:

  1.申请信需要涵盖以上所有要点,可适当发挥;

  2.文中不得出现真实的人名、校名等相关信息;

  3.词数:110词左右。开头和结尾已给出(不计入总词数)。

  Dear Mr. Miller,

  Im Li Ping from Yangfan Middle School. __

  Thank you for your consideration.

  Yours truly,

  Li Ping

  解题指导:

  【审题】

  1. 体裁:申请信,用第一人称写。

  2. 内容:申请担任志愿者,讲明自己的优势。

  3. 主体时态:现在时态。但当谈论过去的经历时,需要用到相关的过去时态。

  4. 开放的内容:除所给提示以外的其他优势;恳请招聘单位考虑自己的申请,并表示谢意;期望回复等。

  5. 词数:110词左右。

  【写作指导】

  [文章结构内容要点开头:自我介绍,说明写信的目的对项目感兴趣(be interested in your project)

  想成为志愿者(want to be the volunteer)主体内容:详述有关与申请要求相关的背景资料,如经历、兴趣爱好等;希望申请得到批准,并说明自己会珍惜这次机会乐于助人(be ready to help others)

  擅长中文(be good at Chinese)

  学好中文的方法(ways to learn Chinese well)

  如果能得到机会,我将……(If I can get the job, I believe I will ...)结尾:表示感谢;期待尽早得到答复等Thank you for ...

  Im looking forward to ...]

  【参考范文】

  Dear Mr. Miller,

  Im Li Ping from Yangfan Middle School. Im very interested in your project and want to be the volunteer to help the students learn Chinese.

  I am warm-hearted and always ready to help others. Im good at Chinese. Last year, I won the first prize for the Chinese Speech Competition in my city. I have many good ways to learn Chinese well. For example, we can listen to the radio and read aloud every morning. Also learning some Chinese classical songs helps improve the language quickly. Besides, talking with local people is a fun and effective way to learn Chinese and its culture. If I can get the job, I believe I can be a great volunteer.

  Thank you for your consideration.

  Yours truly,

  Li Ping

  拓展训练:

  (2015年南通卷)学年结束前, Nancy所在学校的英文校报将征集“班级之星”的推荐信。假如你是Nancy,请根据下表所提示的要点,写一封英文推荐信,推荐以下三名同学并阐明推荐理由。

  注意:

  1. 表达中必须包含所给要点,可以适当发挥,不要简单翻译;

  2. 词数90左右,开头和结尾已经写好,不计入总词数;

  3. 表达中请勿提及真实校名和姓名。

  Dear Sir,

  I would like to recommend three of my classmates for this years Class Stars.

  I hope that you agree with me.

  Yours Faithfully,

  Nancy

  【参考范文】

  Dear Sir,

  I would like to recommend three of my classmates for this years Class Stars.

  First, I think Sandy is the best person for the Cooperation Star. She listens to others patiently. Also, she is good at communicating and ready to share her ideas with others.

  Then, I hope Harry can be the Creation Star because he always thinks in different ways. He is brave enough to try different things. He often comes up with new ideas.

  Finally, I think Emily can be the Show Star. In class, she joins in discussions actively. She is never afraid of making a speech in front of the whole class and she usually speaks in a loud voice.

  I hope that you agree with me.

  Yours Faithfully,

  Nancy

  (二)感谢信

  中考题例:

  (2015年攀枝花卷)在初中即将毕业之际,假如你是李明,请你给曾经对你有很大帮助的王老师写一份感谢信。文章包含以下内容:

  1. 三年前,你来到新的班级,没有朋友,感到孤独;

  2. 王老师鼓励你多交朋友,告诉你学好英语;

  3. 现在你的变化(性格变得外向,积极参加各种活动,学习成绩提高);

  4. 对王老师表示感谢并祝福老师身体健康。

  注意:

  1. 词数80~100,开头和结尾已给出,但不计入总词数;

  2. 短文必须包括所有要点,不要逐词翻译,可适当发挥,使其连贯,通顺。文中不得出现真实的人名、校名等相关信息。

  Dear Mr. Wang,

  How time flies! Ill graduate from the junior school soon,   Yours,

  Li Ming

  解题指导:

  感谢信的写作目的是对他人给予自己的帮助、款待、所赠送礼物等表示感谢。因此,写感谢信首先要真诚;感谢信的另一个特点是具体,切忌泛泛而谈,而应着重写明具体的感谢事由。

  【审题】

  1. 体裁:感谢信,用第一人称写。

  2. 内容:感谢王老师的帮助;自己的变化。

  3. 主体时态:现在时态及相关过去时态。

  4. 开放的内容:除所给提示以外的老师给予的帮助或自己的其他变化。

  5. 词数:80~100词。

  【写作指导】

  【参考范文】

  Dear Mr. Wang,

  How time flies! Ill graduate from the junior high school soon, and I am deeply grateful to you for your kind help. Three years ago, I was new in the class. I had no friends here and felt lonely. You encouraged me to make more friends. And you also told me how to study English well. With your help, I have changed a lot and become more outgoing. I took an active part in various activities that helped me a lot in improving myself.

  Words cant show my thanks to you and Ill work harder and try to do better in the future. I wish you happy and healthy all the time.

  Yours,

  Li Ming

  拓展训练:

  (2015年重庆A卷)加拿大中学生Peter在你校学习期满,回国后写来一封感谢信,同时指出了同学们的一些不良行为。假如你是学生会主席李华,请根据要点提示给Peter回一封电子邮件。

  要点提示:

  1. 表示感谢;

  2. 表达意愿(告别高声喧哗、乱丢乱扔等不良行为);

  3. ……

  要求:

  1. 80词左右。开头和结尾已给出,不计入总词数;

  2.文中不能出现自己的姓名和所在学校的名称。

  Dear Peter,

  Im glad to receive your email. ___________

  Best wishes!

  Yours,

  Li Hua

  【参考范文】

  Dear Peter,

  Im glad to receive your email. Thank you for telling us so much. Im very sorry for what we have done.

  As a student, we should learn to have good habits. First, we will keep quiet in public. Also, we will no longer throw things here and there. Whats more, we wont write or draw on the desks and other places, and we will be more polite to others.

  Id like to invite you to visit our school again. Im sure you will see a cleaner school.

  Best wishes!

  Yours,

  Li Hua

  (三)建议信

  中考题例:

  (2015年山西卷)某校开展“我是课堂小主人”建议征集活动,各班就此展开讨论,同学们纷纷发言:“我希望能有足够的自主学习时间……”“我喜欢的课堂是每人都有一台笔记本电脑,方便上网查询……”“课上我们能自由地讨论,充分展示我们的学习成果……”等。请你结合同学们讨论的结果,给校长以电子邮件的形式写一封信,建议什么样的课堂形式更为同学们喜爱,也更有利于同学们未来的发展。内容须包含以下要点:

  What is your favorite class like?

  Please tell us an unforgettable experience youve had in your class.

  Please give at least two suggestions.

  要求:

  1. 词数80左右,提示词仅供参考;

  2. 邮件的格式已给出,开头、结尾不计入总词数;

  3. 文中不得出现真实的人名、校名。

  解题指导:

  建议信的写作目的是提出建议或忠告,观点要合情合理,注意语言要得体、礼貌。 写作时,首先要肯定优点,再提出改进内容。

  【审题】

  1. 体裁:建议信,用第一人称写。

  2. 内容:给校长写信,建议什么样的课堂形式更为同学们喜爱,也更有利于同学们未来的发展。

  3. 主体时态:现在时态及相关过去时态。

  4. 开放的内容:除所给提示外的至少两点建议。

  【写作指导】

  【参考范文】

  Dear Mr. Li,

  My favorite class is an open and free class where I can learn by myself and discuss in groups, which is good for my development, I think.

  I still remember an unforgettable experience in my maths class. Several days ago, I spent a long time working on three maths problems in class, but they were too hard for me to work them out. So I had to ask my classmates for help. After a considerable discussion, we solved the problems in our group. How excited I was!

  Having such a great experience,I want to give two suggestions. Firstly, please dont teach us too much in class. We need about 30 minutes to learn by ourselves and work in groups every class. Secondly,please provide us with some laptops if possible, so we can surf the Internet easily. No doubt, we need an open and free class, you see.

  Thats all. Thank you.

  Best wishes!

  Yours faithfully,

  Zhang Hua

  拓展训练:

  试题1:

  (2015年遂宁卷)假如你是李华,你的朋友玲玲写信向你抱怨(complain)没有时间做作业,没有时间锻炼……她就这些问题向你寻求帮助,请你就如何合理安排时间给她写一封回信。

  提示:

  学习方面:做好学习计划,上课认真听讲,高效完成作业;

  锻炼方面:利用早上和周末锻炼;

  其他建议:①,②,……

  注意:

  1.词数80左右,开头和结尾已给出,不计入总词数;

  2.文章应包括写信的背景和提示中的所有要点,可适当发挥,以使行文连贯;

  3.文中请勿提及你的真实姓名和学校。

  Dear Lingling,

  I am glad to hear from you.

  []

  Hope things work out.

  Yours,

  Li Hua

  【参考范文】

  Dear Lingling,

  I am glad to hear from you. You complained that you had no time to do your homework or exercise. I think you should spend your time in a proper way. For example, you can make a plan about your study, listen to the teachers carefully and do your homework quickly. As for exercise, you can do it in the morning and on weekends. I also think you should cut down the time hanging out with your friends. Dont spend too much time playing computer games or listening to the music, even though they are really relaxing.

  Hope things work out.

  Yours,

  Li Hua

  试题2:

  (2015年南京卷)假如你是阳光中学的李磊,你在学校网站看到国际学生Stephen的求助信。请根据Stephen信的内容,用英语给Stephen写一封回信,介绍你校图书馆借书的要求和流程。 [HELP NEEDED

  Im Stephen, an international student from Britain. Id like to know how to borrow books from the school library. Should I bring my students card with me? How long can I keep a book? I wonder if you can provide any tips on borrowing books.

  Please email me at [email protected] Thank you!

  Stephen]

  注意:

  1. 文中不得出现你的真实姓名和学校名称;

  2. 语言通顺,意思连贯,条理清楚,书写规范;

  3. 词数80左右,邮件的开头与结尾已经给出,不计入总词数。

  Dear Stephen,

  I am writing to tell you how to borrow books from the school library.

  Yours faithfully,

  Li Lei

  【参考范文】

  Dear Stephen,

  I am writing to tell you how to borrow books from the school library. Remember to go to the library with your students card. When you enter the library, first show your students card to a librarian. Then you can choose books you need. At last you can take the books away after you show them to a librarian.

  You can only borrow three books at a time and keep them for a month. You will have to go back to the library to renew the books if you want to keep them longer.

  Please email me if you have any other questions.

  Yours faithfully,

  Li Lei

  三、演讲稿或发言稿

  演讲稿或发言稿是近年各地中考应用文写作经常考查的文体之一。此类文体一般是为了传递某些信息,如阐述事实、提供见解、分析事件、说明原因等。因此,演讲稿或发言稿的写作其实基本上算是记叙文的写作。

  下面以2015年天津市中考试题为例,来学习演讲稿的写作。

  中考题例:

  (2015年天津卷)假如你即将在学校英语兴趣小组的活动中发言,请你用英语写一篇发言稿。

  要点提示如下:

  1.几个月前,奶奶晚饭后去跳广场舞;

  2.从那时起,奶奶喜欢上了广场舞;

  3.现在,奶奶比以前健康了,有了很多朋友;

  4.有些邻居有意见,认为音乐很吵,无法入睡;

  5.你认为人们可以跳广场舞,但……

  参考词汇:跳广场舞 do square dancing;对某人有意见have a complaint against sb.

  要求:

  1.词数:80~100词;

  2.开头和结尾已给出,不计入总词数;

  3.要点齐全,行文连贯,可适当发挥。

  Boys and girls,

  Im very happy to speak here and Id like to talk about my grandma.

  Thats all. Thank you!

  解题指导:

  【审题】

  1. 体裁:发言稿,用第一人称写。但在涉及奶奶的描述时用第三人称。

  2. 内容:评论奶奶跳广场舞这件事。

  3. 主体时态:现在时态。但当谈论过去的经历时,需要用到相关的过去时态。

  4. 开放的内容:你对跳广场舞的建议。

  5. 词数:80~100词。

  【写作指导】

  [文章结构内容要点开头:简要介绍,点明主题Im very happy to speak here and Id like to talk about my grandma.主体内容:以时间为顺序,阐述主要事件;发表自己的观点A few months ago ... since then ... now ...

  Some neighbors have a complaint against ...

  In my opinion ...结尾:建议并感谢别人的倾听Thank you for ...]

  【参考范文】

  Boys and girls,

  Im very happy to speak here and Id like to talk about my grandma.

  A few months ago, my grandma went to do square dancing after supper. Since then, she has been in love with square dancing. Now, she is

  much healthier than before. Whats more, she has a lot of friends. However, some neighbors have a complaint against the people who do square dancing. They think that the music is so loud that they cant fall asleep at night.

  In my opinion, people can do square dancing because it is a good way to keep healthy. But they should think about the feelings of others and they shouldnt make a lot of noise.

  Thats all. Thank you for your listening.

  拓展训练:

  试题1:

  (2015年河北卷)英语课上,老师要求同学们介绍个人周末计划。假设下面表格内容是你的计划提纲,请根据表格提示的活动内容,写一篇发言稿,介绍你的周末计划,并在班上与同学交流。

  [SaturdayWatch TVGo to a bookstoreSundayVisit grandparents...]

  要求:

  1.发言稿须包括三个所列要点和一个补充要点;

  2.发言稿中四个要点都要适当发挥;

  3.发言稿中不得涉及真实的人名、校名和地名;

  4.词数:80左右(已给出的开头和结尾不计入总词数)。

  Hi, everyone! Heres my plan for the weekend.

  Thank you!

  【参考范文】

  Hi, everyone! Heres my plan for the weekend.

  On Saturday morning, Im going to watch TV to relax myself after a long weeks study. I like watching comedies and cartoons. On Saturday afternoon, Im going to the bookstore to buy some books. Reading is one of my hobbies.

  On Sunday, Im going to visit my grandparents because I miss them very much. Ill help them do some housework. After I come back, Ill do my homework to get ready for the next week.

  Thats my weekend. Like it?

  Thank you!

  试题2:

  (2015年绵阳卷)上高中后第一节英语课,老师要求每个同学用英语做1分钟的自我介绍。请准备一份80~100词的发言稿,内容应涉及以下四个方面:

  1.家庭情况;

  2.学习上的强项与弱项;

  3.兴趣与爱好;

  4.对高中生活的期待。

  要求:

  1.内容反映自己的真实情况,但文中不得提及真实的人名、地名或校名;

  2.首尾已给出,不计入总词数。

  Hello, everybody! Nice to meet you. My name is Li Hua. Im from Rainbow High School.

  Thank you!

  【参考范文】

  Hello, everybody! Nice to meet you. My name is Li Hua. Im from Rainbow High School.

  In my family, besides father and mother, I have a little brother. I love them very much and we live happily.

  I like reading books. I am also fond of listening to music. I love country music. I like watching cartoons, too.

  As for subjects, I like English best, because its interesting. And I think its a good way to communicate with foreigners. But I am weak in P.E. I will exercise every morning from now on.

  In the high school I will try my best to correct my disadvantages and Im trying to be a perfect girl.

  Thank you!

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