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 栏目类别:学习方法 >> 高中 >> 英语

名词性从句讲解和区分

  作为高考的热点,名词性从句几乎在历年的高考试卷中都有涉及。笔者在此就名词性从句中的几大易错点进行分析,希望对同学们有所帮助。

  [关系代词和关系副词的误用]

  例1 (2016·全国卷Ⅰ) My uncle is the owner of a restaurant close to that I live.

  解析 that→where。本题考查宾语从句,引导词在从句中充当地点状语,所以将that改为where。

  例2 (2015·全国卷Ⅱ) As natural architects, the Pueblo Indians figured out exactly thick the adobe walls needed to be to make the cycle work on most days.

  解析 how。根据语境和空后的形容词thick可知应用how引导宾语从句,此处表示要弄清楚到底土坯房的墙需要“多”厚。故答案为how。

  点拨 若从句缺少主语、宾语、表语或定语,则考虑用关系代词;若从句缺少时间、地点、原因、方式等状语成分,则使用关系副词(when/where/why/how)。

  [if和whether的误用]

  例3 He asked her the question if they can be friends.

  解析 if→whether。question后为同位语从句,只能用whether来引导,故而将if改为whether。

  例4 It doesn’t matter so much you will come or not.

  解析 考查主语从句。句意:你来还是不来,这不怎么重要。代词it作形式主语,真正的主语是whether引导的主语从句。

  点拨 在表达“是否”这一意思时,我们经常会用到whether和if,但以下几种情况只用whether不用if:

  1. 在表语从句、主语从句、同位语从句中;

  2. 在介词后的宾语从句中。如:It all depends on whether they will support us.

  3. 在不定式之前。如:He doesn’t know whether to stay or not.

  4. 从句中有or not时。如:He doesn’t know whether he should stay or not.

  [what和that的误用]

  例5 (2016·上海卷) Eventually, I decided to follow her and 26 happened truly amazed me.

  解析 what。句意:发生的事情真的让我很惊讶。设空处无提示词,分析从句的结构可知,从句中缺少主语,且指代的是物,可判断答案为what。本句中连接代词what引导主语从句且在从句中做主语。

  例6 He was interested in that he had seen at the exhibition.

  解析 that→what。介词in后的宾语从句中缺少宾语,应用what。

  点拨 要正确填入引导词,关键在于分析句子结构,判断引导词在从句中所作的成分。引导从句时,that不作任何句子成分,只起连接作用;what可作主语、宾语、表语、定语,既充当从句的一个成分,又引导一个从句,意为“什么”“……的人”“……的地方”“……的样子”。

  [wh-ever的误用]

  例7 (2016·北京卷)Your support is important to our work. you can do helps.

  A. However B. Whoever

  C. Whatever D. Wherever

  解析 C。考查主语从句。本题中,helps是谓语,you can do属于主语的一部分。在主语从句中,do的后面缺少宾语,whatever引导主语从句,同时作do的宾语,该句意思是:你能做的任何事都有帮助。

  点拨 关系代词whoever, whatever, whichever引导名词性从句时,相当于anyone who,anything that等;引导让步状语从句时,相当于no matter who/what/which。

  注意 1. wh-和wh-ever的区别:wh-有疑问的意思;wh-ever有强调的意思。如:

  Who will be invited hasn’t been decided.

  Whoever/Anyone who comes here is welcomed.

  2. wh-ever在引导名词性从句时不能用no matter wh-来替换,但在引导状语从句时可以替换。如:

  Whatever happened, he would not mind.

  = No matter what happened, he would not mind.

  [代词it的误用]

  例8 This is not surprising that the Silver Ghost was regarded as “the best car in the world”.

  As is known to all my classmates that I can speak English as if I were a native speaker.

  解析 This→It;As→It。两个句子均是主语从句,应该用it作形式主语。

  点拨 代词it作形式主语,将主语从句放到句尾,引导词则根据从句所缺的成分来确定。出题人一般会利用同学们对该结构掌握不牢而针对形式主语it设题。

  例9 (2015·浙江卷) How would you like , if you were watching your favorite TV program and someone came into the room and just shut it off without asking you?

  A. them B. one

  C. those D. it

  解析 D。if引导的宾语从句是本句真正的宾语,而空格处是形式宾语,只有it可充当形式宾语。

  点拨 有些动词或短语,如like, hate, dislike, appreciate, owe, depend on, see to,接宾语从句时需要在宾语从句前加it做形式宾语。例如:

  I don’t like it when you look at me like that.

  [与其他从句的混淆]

  不少同学经常将名词性从句与其他从句,尤其是与定语从句和强调句搞混。

  1. 与定语从句的区别

  例10 (2015·天津卷) The boss of the company is trying to create an easy atmosphere his employees enjoy their work.

  解析 where。句意为“这家公司的老板正尽力为员工创设一种让他们能尽情享受工作的氛围”。设空处引导的定语从句修饰先行词atmosphere,该从句缺地点状语,故填关系副词where,相当于in which。

  点拨 定语从句与名词性从句的区别:定语从句前必须有先行词,先行词通常为名词或代词;名词性从句除同位语从句外,前面均无名词或代词。

  2. 与强调句的区别

  例11 (2015·湖北卷) It was in the lake that they found the long last sword of the Ming Dynasty.

  解析 本句为强调句式,强调了地点状语in the lake,意思是“正是在那个湖里……”。that与前面的It was共同构成强调句式。

  例12 (2016·江苏卷) It is often the case anything is possible for those who hang on to hope.

  A. why B. what

  C. as D. that

  解析 考查主语从句。本句中it是形式主语,真正的主语是D。that引导的主语从句,that在本句中不充当成分。句意:通常对那些心存希望的人来说,一切都是可能发生的。

  点拨 要弄清名词性从句与强调句的区别,同学们就应该牢记强调句中若去掉it is/was ... that ...,句子依然完整,而名词性从句中用来引导主、宾语从句的that尽管没有实际含义,但在从句中起连接作用。

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