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 栏目类别:知识点 >> 高中 >> 英语

直接引语与间接引语

  定义:

  直接引语:直接引用别人的原话,并在原话前后加引号。

  例:He said:" It is too late."

  间接引语:用自己的话转述别人的话,多数以宾语从句的形式构成。

  例:He said it was too late.

  直接引语与间接引语的转换:

  一、人称代词的变化:

  直接引语变间接引语时,人称代词的变化一般规律是:

  第一人称→第三人称;

  第二人称→第一人称;

  第三人称→第三人称。

  简记为“二一、一三、三留”。

  例:"I'm thinking of changing my address." he said.

  → He said that he was thinking of changing his address.(I和he指同一个人)

  Xiao Ming asked me, "Are you going to the park with us?"

  → Xiao Ming asked me if I was going to the park with them.(us与them指相同的人,XiaoMing是其中的一员;me和you指同一个人)

  Mr. Li said, "She will attend the meeting."

  → Mr. Li saidthatshewouldattendthemeeting.(Mr. Li和she不是同一个人) 但当说话者是第一人称,直接引语中的主语也是第一人称时,不作变化。

  I said to my children, "I will give you some presents on Christmas Day."

  → I told my children I would give them some presents on Christmas Day. (I为同一说话者)

  二、时态的变化:

  直接引语变间接引语时,时态的变化规律是往“过去”相应的时态推移:

  一般现在时→一般过去时,

  一般将来时→过去将来时,

  现在进行时→过去进行时,

  现在完成时→过去完成时,

  一般过去时/过去完成时→过去完成时。

  如:My father told me, "He will come back next week."

  → My father told me that he would come back the next week.

  She asked me, "Did you finish your homework?"

  → She asked me if I had finished my homework.

  注意:直接引语属下列情况时,时态不作变化:

  1、直接引语属真理或客观事实时:

  如:The teacher said to us, "Light runs much faster than sound."

  → The teacher told us light runs much faster than sound.

  2、主句谓语动词是现在或将来某个时态:

  如:The old man often says, "I joined the Red Army when I was young."

  → The old man often says that he joined the Red Army when he was young.

  3、直接引语带有具体的过去时间状语时:

  如:The politics teacher said to us, "The party was founded in 1921."

  → The politics teacher told us that the party was founded in 1921.

  4、直接引语谓语有情态动词:had better,would rather及need,must,oughtto等时:

  如:He said to me, "I would rather live in the countryside."

  → He told me that he would rather live in the countryside.

  5、直接引语为虚拟语气谓语时 e.g.Shesaid,"IwouldbehappyifIwereabird."→ Shesaidthatshewouldbehappyifshewereabird.

  三、句型的变化:

  直接引语变间接引语时,句型要作适当变化:

  1、变陈述句为由that引导的从句(that常省略):

  如:"I want to improve my English at school," said the child.

  → The child said(that) he wanted to improve his English at school.

  2、变一般疑问句为由if/whether引导的从句:

  如:"Are you sure he will come today?"Jenny asked Helen.

  → Jenny asked Helen if/whether she was sure he would come that day.

  3、变选择疑问句为由whether...or.../whether...or not引导的从句:

  如:"Is he a director or an actor?" she asked me.

  → She asked me whether he was a director or an actor.

  4、变反意问句时,要视说话者的语气而定:

  (1)表示疑问时,先需去掉后面的反意问句部分,再按一般疑问句变化。

  如:"You haven't finished your composition, have you?" the teacher said to me.

  → The teacher asked me if I had finished my composition.

  (2)表示提醒或警告等特别语气时,先按陈述句变化,再把间接引语前的动词更换为表示相应语气的动词remind,warn等。

  如:"You're late for class, aren't you?" the teacher said angrily to me.

  → The teacher warned me that I was late for class.

  5、变特殊疑问词开头的问句为原特殊疑问词引导的从句:

  如:"When did you come here?" Tom asked Jim.

  → Tom asked Jim when he had gone there.

  6、变祈使句为不定式短语,作动词ask,tell,order,beg,request,advise,offer,warn等的宾语补足语,宾语为说话者的对象,选什么动词,视情况而定:

  如:The doctor said to the patient, "Don't eat oily food again."

  → The doctor advised the patient not to eat oily food again.

  7、变感叹句为how或what引出的从句,也可用that引出从句:

  如:"How clever a boy he is." the teacher said to the mother.

  → The teacher told the mother how clever a boy he was.

  或:The teacher told the mother that he was clever boy.

  8、直接引语是多个句子时,按其句型特点,用上面的方法分别处理,并用and连接:

  如:Mrs. Smith said, "I don't know the way to the station. How can I get there?"

  → Mrs. Smith said that she didn't know the way to the station and asked me how she could get there.

  9、若直接引语是What's the matter?/What has happened?/What's wrong with...? 时,变成间接引语语序不变:

  如:"What's the matter?" said he.

  → He asked me what was the matter.

  直接引语变间接引语词语转化对比:

  注意:如果在当时转述别人话,不必要改变时间状语;在原地转述别人的话,也不必改变地点状语,同样,come也不一定要改为go。

  如:John said just now, "I came here yesterday."

  →John said just now that he came here yesterday.

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