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 栏目类别:知识点 >> 高中 >> 英语

介词和介词短语

  介词和介词短语的概念:

  介词是一种用来表示词与词、词与句之间的关系的虚词,在句中不能单独作句子成分。介词后面一般有名词、代词或相当于名词的其他词类,短语或从句作它的宾语。介词和它的宾语构成介词词组,在句中作状语,表语,补语或介词宾语。介词可以分为时间介词、地点介词、方式介词和其他介词。

  误用介词的三种情况:

  1、多用介词:

  多用介词可能是受汉语意思的影响将及物动词误用作不及物动词,也可能是受相关结构的影响而用错:

  误:We discussed about the plan.

  正:We discussed the plan. 我们讨论了计划。

  误:Did he mention about the accident?

  正:Did he mention the accident? 他提到那次事故了吗?

  误:I saw her enter into the bank.

  正:I saw her enter the bank. 我看见她进了银行。

  误:He married with[to] a nurse.

  正:He married a nurse. 他同一位护士结了婚。

  误:How can contact with you?

  正:How can contact you? 我怎么与你联系?

  误:We should serve for the people heart and soul.

  正:We should serve the people heart and soul. 我们应该全心全意地为人民服务。

  误:Who controls over the factory? (但名词control可接over)

  正:Who controls the factory? 谁管理这个工厂?

  误:He has a great many of friends here. (比较a great number of)

  正:He has a great many friends here. 他在这儿有很多朋友。

  2、漏用介词:

  漏用介词可能是受汉语意思的影响将不及物动词误用作及物动词,或是受相关结构的影响的影响而用错等:

  误:This matter is difficult to deal. (deal with=处理)

  正:This matter is difficult to deal with. 这事很难处理。

  误:He is not a man to be depended.

  正:He is not a man to be depended on. 他不是个可靠的人。

  误:He took a cup of tea, and went on the story.

  正:He took a cup of tea, and wentonwiththestory.他喝了一口茶,又接着讲故事。

  误:My mother still regards me a child. (比较consider…as中的as可省略)

  正:My mother still regards me as a child. 我母亲还把我当小孩看。

  误:They insisted sending a car over to fetch us.

  正:They insisted on sending a car over to fetch us.他们坚持要派车来接我们。

  误:What he says is worth listening.

  正:What he said is worth listening to.他的话值得一听。

  3、错用介词:

  错用介词的情况比较复杂,可能是因受汉语意思的而错,也可能是因弄不清搭配关系而错,可能是混淆用法而错,也可能是受相关结构的影响而错,可能是忽略语境而错,也可能是想当然的用错:

  误:She called on his office yesterday. (call on+人,call at+地点)

  正:She called at his office yesterday. 她昨天去了他办公室拜访。

  误:He is engaged with a nurse.

  正:He is engaged to a nurse.他与一位护士订了婚。

  误:The sun rises from the east.

  正:The sun rises in the east.太阳从东方升起。

  误:Under his help, I finished it in time.

  正:With his help, I finished it in time. 在他的帮助下,我及时做完了。

  误:During he was in Japan, he visited many places.

  正:During his stay in Japan, he visited many places.他在日本期间,参观过许多地方。

  误:We are familiar to his character.

  正:We are familiar with his character.我们了解他的性格。

  误:Help yourself with the fruit.

  正:Help yourself to the fruit.吃点水果吧。

  介词的宾语:

  1、名词或代词作介词宾语:

  如:Are you interested in history? 你对历史感兴趣吗?

  Don't worry about it. 别为它担心。

  注:若是人称代词用作介词宾语,要注意用宾格。

  如:No one can sing like her. 没有人能像她那样唱歌。(不能用like she)

  2、动名词作介词宾语:

  如:He is good at telling stories. 他善于讲故事。

  In crossing the street he was run over. 他在穿过马路时被汽车撞倒。

  3、过去分词作介词宾语:

  如:We can't regard the matter as settled. 我们不能认为这事已经解决。

  I take it for granted you have read the book. 我以为你读过这本书。

  注:过去分词用作介词宾语通常只见于某些固定结构中,如上面第1句涉及regard…as(认为…是)结构,第2句涉及take sth for granted(认为某事属实)。在其他情况下,介词后通常不直接跟过去分词作宾语,若语义上需要接过去分词(表被动),可换用“being+过去分词”:

  如:He went out without being seen by the others.他出去了,没有被其他人看见。

  4、从句作介词宾语:

  如:He was not satisfied with what she said. 他对她说的不满意。

  I'm worried about where he is. 我担心他上哪儿去了。

  注:介词后通常不接that从句,遇此情况需考虑用其他结构:

  误:He paid no attention to that she was poor.

  正:He paid no attention to the fact that she was poor. 他根本不注意她很穷这一事实。

  但有个别介词(如except)可接that从句。

  比较:I know nothing about him except that he lives next door./I know nothing about him except for the fact that he lives next door. 我只知道他住在隔壁,其它的就不知道了。

  5、不定式作介词宾语:

  如:I had no choice but to wait. 除了等,我没有别的选择。

  He wanted nothing but to stay there. 他只想留在那儿。

  They did nothing but complain. 他们老是一个劲地抱怨。

  He never did anything but watch TV. 除了看电视,他从不干任何事。

  注:(1)介词后接不定式的情形通常只见于but, except等极个别个词。该不定式有时带to,有时不带to,其区别是:若其前出现了动词do,其后的不定式通常不带to;

  若其前没有出现动词do,则其后的不定式通常带to。

  (2)介词后虽然通常不直接跟不定式作宾语,但却可接“连接代词(副词)+不定式”结构:

  如:He gave me some advice on how to do it. 对于如何做这事他给我提了些建议。

  6、形容词作介词宾语:

  如:Her pronunciation is far from perfect. 她的语音远不是完美的。

  In short, we must be prepared. 总而言之,我们要有准备。

  Things have gone from bad to worse. 事情越来越糟。

  注:(1)有些形容词用作介词宾语可视为其前省略了动名词being:

  如:He regarded the situationas(being) serious. 他认为形势严重。

  His work is far from(being) satisfactory. 他的工作丝毫不令人满意。

  (2)有些“介词+形容词”的结构已构成固定搭配:in full全部地,全面地,无省略地; in private私下地,秘密地; in particular特别地;in general一般地,通常地,概括地; in brief 简言之;in short总之,简言之; in vain徒然地,徒劳无益地;for fee免费地,无偿地; for certain肯定地,确切地;for sure肯定地,确切地; for short为了简短,简称;atl arge自由自在地,逍遥法外; by far…得多

  7、副词作介词宾语:

  如:I can't stay for long. 我不能久呆。

  It's too hot in here. 这里面太热了。

  I looked every where except there. 除了那儿,我到处都看过了。

  8、数词作介词宾语:

  如:The city has a population of four million. 这座城市有四百万人口。

  He was among the first to arrive. 他是第一批到的。

  9、介词短语作介词宾语:

  如:Choose a book from among these. 从这些书中选一本吧。

  I saw her from across the street. 我从街的对面望见了她。

  注:通常可后接介词短语作宾语的介词是from, till, until, since, except, instead of等。

  比较:I took it from the bed. 我从床那儿(或床上)拿的。

  I took it from under the bed. 我从床下拿的。

  10、复合结构用作介词宾语:

  如:She had no objection to Mary marrying him. 她不反对玛丽与他结婚。

  She came in with a book in her hand. 她手里拿着一本书走了进来。

  All the afternoon he worked with the door locked. 整个下午他都锁着门在房里工作。

  介词短语的句法功能:

  1、表语:

  如:He was with a friend. 他和一个朋友在一起。

  Health is above wealth. 健康胜过财富。

  This knife is for cutting bread. 这把小刀是用于切面包的。

  注:有些介词(如because of)引出的短语通常只用作状语,不用作表语:

  误:His absence is because of the rain.

  正:His absence is due to the rain. 他因雨未来。

  但是,若主语是代词(不是名词),becauseof引出的短语可用作表语:

  如:It is because of hard work. 那是因为辛苦工作的原因。

  2、状语:

  如:Don't touch it with your hands. 别用手去摸它。

  Did you do this by design or by accident? 你这样做是有意的还是无意的?

  3、定语:

  如:This is his reply to your letter. 这是他给你的回信。

  This is the best way of doing it. 这是做此事最好的方法。

  My love for you is deeper than the sea. 我对你的爱比海深。

  4、宾语补足语:

  如:I found everythingin good condition. 我发现一切正常。

  Her illness kept her in bed for a week. 她因生病在床上躺了一星期。

  注:用作宾语补足语的介词短语在相应的被动语态中则为主语补足语:

  如:He was regarded as a hero. 他被看成是英雄。

  5、宾语:

  如:A man stepped out from behind the wall. 一个人从墙后走出来。

  He cannot spare anytime except on Sunday. 除星期日外,他抽不出时间。

  6、主语:

  如:Between6 and 7 suits me. 六点到七点对我比较适合。

  After the exams is the time to relax. 考试后是轻松一下的时间。

  注:介词短语通常不用作主语,尽管有时也像上面这样用作主语,但通常可视为是在一定的上下文中有所省略:

  如:—When are we going to have the next meeting? 我们下次什么时候见面?

  —On Tuesday may be convenient. 星期二可能比较方便。

  此句中onTuesday虽用作主语,但可视为是其前省略了meeting一词:

  即:Meeting during the vacation may be convenient.

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