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 栏目类别:知识点 >> 高中 >> 英语

不定代词

  不定代词概说:

  英语的不定代词有all, each, both, either, neither, one, none, little, few, many, much, other, another, some, any, no, few, little, both, enough, every等,以及由some,any,no和every构成的合成代词(即somebody, anyone, nothing等)。在这些不定代词中,多数都能作主语、宾语、表语或定语,但是代词none以及由some, any, no和every构成的合成代词只能作主语、宾语或表语,不能作定语,而no和every则只用作定语。

  不定代词用法对比:

  1、so little与such little的区别:

  用so little还是such little取决于little的意思:若表示数量方面的“少”,则用so little;若表示形状体积的“小”,则用such little:

  如:He has so little time for reading. 他读书的时间少得可怜。

  I've never seen such little boxes. 我从未见过那样小的盒子。

  2、some与any的用法区别:

  一般说来,some用于肯定句中,any用于否定句和疑问句中。但是,在表示请求、邀请或征求意见的句子中,通常要用some而不用any:

  如:Would you like some cake? 吃点蛋糕吗?

  Why not buy some bread? 为什么不买些面包呢?

  Shall I get some chalk for you? 要我帮你拿些粉笔来吗?

  注:any有时也用于肯定句中,此时表示“任何”:

  如:Any colour will do. 任何颜色都行。

  Come any day you like. 随便哪天来都可以。

  3、many与much的用法区别:

  两者都表示“许多”,但many修饰或代替可数名词(复数),与few(少数)相对;

  而much用来修饰或代替不可数名词(单数),与little(少量)相对。在口语中两者主要用于非肯定句中:

  如:Did you see many people there? 你在那儿看见许多人了吗?

  We don't have much time. 我们没有许多时间。

  在肯定句中,一般用a lot of, lots of, plenty of 等代之。但在正式文体中有时也用于肯定句中;

  另外,若用作主语或主语的定语,或其前有how, too, as, so, a good, a great等修饰,也可用于肯定句中:

  如:Many of us left early. 我们有许多人离开得很早。

  Much work has been done. 许多工作都已经做了。

  You've given me too much. 你已给我太多了。

  Take as many(much) as you want. 你要多少拿多少。

  I asked her a great many questions. 我问了她许多问题。

  4、few, a few与little, a little的用法区别:

  (1)few和a few后接可数名词的复数形式。few表示数量很少或几乎没有,强调“少”,含有否定意义;

  a few表示数量虽然少但毕竟还有,强调“有”,含有肯定意义:

  如:It is very difficult, and few people understand it. 它很难,没有几个人能懂。

  It is very difficult, but a few people understand it. 他虽难,但是有些人懂。

  (2)little和alittle之后接不可数名词,其区别跟few和a few之间的区别相似:

  如:Unfortunately, I had little money on me. 很不巧,我身上没带什么钱。

  Fortunately, I had a little money on me. 幸好我身上带着一点钱。

  5、other, the other, another与others的用法区别:

  这些不定代词不仅在含义上有单复数之分,而且在用法上有泛指(无the)和特指(有the)之别。其用法区别可归纳如下:

  (1)指单数时,若泛指用another,若特指用the other:

  如:Give me another(one). 另外给我一个。

  Shut the other eye, please. 请把另一只眼睛也闭上。

  (2)指复数时,若泛指用other(后接复数名词),若特指用the other(后接复数名词):

  如:There are other ways of doing it. 做这事还有其他的办法。

  Where have the other students gone? 其他学生都到哪里去了?

  (3)others永远表示复数意义(且其后不能再接名词)。其用法大致相当于“other+复数名词”,同样地the others大致相当于“the other+复数名词”:

  如:Other people[Others] may not think that way. 别的人可能不这样想。

  He is cleverer than the others[the other students] in her class. 他比班上其他学生聪明。

  (4)another一般只能表单数,且其后接名词也只能接单数名词。但是若其后有数词或few修饰时,则也可接复数名词:

  如:We need another few chairs. 我们还需要几把椅子。

  In another two weeks it'll be finished. 再过两个星期就可做完了。

  (5)与some对比使用时,用others(此时与some同义):

  如:Some say yes, and others say no. 有人说对,有人说不对。

  不定代词用法点拨:

  1、指两者和三者的不定代词:

  有些不定代词用于指两者(如both, either, neither),有的不定代词用于指三者(如all, any, none, every),注意不要弄混:

  如:Both of my parents are doctors. 我的父母都是医生。

  All of the students are interested in it. 所有的学生对此都很感兴趣。

  There are trees on any side of the square. 广场的每一边都种有树。

  He has two sons, neither of whom is rich. 他有两个儿子,都不富有。

  He has three sons, none of whom is rich. 他有三个儿子,都不富有。

  注:each可用于两者、三者或三者以上,而every只用于三者或三者以上,因此用于两者时只能用each,不能用every。

  2、复合不定代词的用法特点:

  复合不定代词包括something, somebody, someone, anything, anybody, anyone, nothing, nobody, noone, everything, everybody, everyone等。它们在句中可用作主语、宾语或表语,但不能用作定语。something, someone等和anything, anyone等的区别与some和any的区别一样,前者一般用于肯定句,后者一般用于否定句、疑问句或条件句。具体使用时应注意以下几点:

  (1)复合不定代词受定语修饰时,定语应放在它们后面:

  如:There is nothing wrong with the radio. 这收音机没有毛病。

  Have you seen anyone[anybody] famous? 你见过名人吗?

  (2)指人的复合不定代词若用作主语,其谓语动词一般用单数,相应的人称代词和物主代词也用单数he, him, his(不一定指男性)。但在非正式文体中常用复数代词they, them, their:

  如:Everyone knows this, doesn't he[don't they]? 人人都知道这一点,不是吗?

  If anybody[anyone] comes, ask him[them] to wait. 要是有人来,让他等着。

  (3)指事物的复合不定代词若用作主语,谓语动词只能用单数,相应的人称代词也只能用it,而不用they:

  如:Everything is ready, isn't it? 一切都准备好了,是吗?

  (4)anyone, everyone等只能指人,不能指物,且其后一般不接of 短语。若是指物或后接of 短语,可用any one, every one(分开写):

  如:any one of the boys(books) 孩子们(书)当中的任何一个(本)

  every one of the students(schools) 每一个学生(一所学校)

  3、是any not还是not any:

  按英语习惯,any以及含有any的复合不定代词用于否定句时,它只能出现在否定词之后,而不能在否定词之前:

  误:Anyone doesn't know how to do it.

  正:No one knows how to do it.任何人都不知道如何做它。

  误:Anybody[Anyone] can not do it.

  正:Nobody[Noone] can do it.这事谁也干不了。

  误:Anything can not prevent me from going.

  正:Nothing can prevent me from going. 什么也不能阻挡我去。

  4、不定代词与部分否定:

  不定代词all, both, every等与not连用时构成部分否定;若要表示完全否定,则需换用none, neither, no one等。

  比较:All of the students like the novel. 所有这些学生都喜欢这本小说。

  Not all of the students like the novel. 并不是所有这些学生都喜欢这本小说。

  All of the students don't like the novel. 并不是所有这些学生都喜欢这本小说。

  None of the students like the novel. 这些学生当中没有一个喜欢这本小说。

  5、all, both, each等用作同位语:

  若用作主语同位语,主语可以是名词或代词;若用作宾语等其他成分的同位语,则宾语等成分必须是人称代词,而不能是名词:

  如:We have all read it. 我们都读过他。(all修饰的主语是代词)

  The villages have all been destroyed. 村庄都被毁了。(all修饰的主语是名词)

  They told us all to wait there. 他叫我们都在那儿等。(all修饰的宾语是代词)

  但不能说:They told the men all to wait there. (all修饰的宾语是名词不是代词)

  不定代词知识体系:

  不定代词与语境考题:

  不定代词是高考的常考考点,有的不定代词考题出得比较灵活,不能死套规则,要注意结合语境来理解:

  例1:—Is____here?

  —No, Bob and Tim have asked for leave.

  A. anybody

  B. everybody

  C. somebody

  D. nobody

  解析:

  若只是从表面来看,填空句是个疑问句,可能会误选A。但其实此题最佳答案应选B,因为下文的答句说“只有Bob和Tim请假了”,这说明问句是在查人数,故用Is everybody here? (大家都到齐了吗?)

  例2:I agree with most of what you said, but I don't agree with_____.

  A. everything

  B. anything

  C. something

  D. nothing

  解析:

  此句若从表面看,有可能误选B,因为填空句为否定句。但实际上最佳答案为A,因为上文说“我同意他说的大部分内容”,这与下文的but I don't agree with everything (但并不是同意他说的所有内容)完全相符。

  例3:—Doyouhave_____athomenow,Mary?

  —No, we still have to get some fruit and tea.

  A. something

  B. anything

  C. everything

  D. nothing

  解析:答案:C,句意为“玛丽,现在家里东西都准备齐了吗?”“还没有,我们还要买些水果和茶。”

  例4:—If you want a necklace, I'll buy one for you at once.

  —Oh, no. A necklace is not_____that I need most.

  A. anything

  B. something

  C. nothing

  D. everything

  解析:

  此题容易误选A,机械地认为:something用于肯定句,anything用于否定句或疑问句。但是,此题的最佳答案是B,something在此的意思不是“某种东西”,而是指“那种东西”或“这种东西”,即心中最想要的那种东西(相当于the thing)。

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