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 栏目类别:知识点 >> 初中 >> 英语

倒装句

  倒装句:

  为了强调、突出等语的目的而颠倒原有语序的句式叫做倒装句。在倒装句中,颠倒了的成分可以恢复原位而句意基本不变,句法成分不变。

  倒装句使用情况:

  A. 在疑问句中

  各种疑问句一般地说都是倒装语序。例如:

  Will they come to see us this weekend ? 这个周末他们将来看我们吗?

  Are you talking about the film you saw last Monday ?

  你们是在谈论你们上周一看的那部电影吗?

  Can you speak another foreign language except English?

  除开英语,你还能说另一种外语吗?

  Where did you buy the dictionary, in the book store nearby or in Xinhua bookstore?

  你在哪儿买的这本词典,是在附近的书店还是在新华书店?

  She is not a student, isn't she ? 她不是个学生,对吗?

  B. 在感叹句中

  某些感叹句也用倒装语序。例如:

  Isn't it a beautiful garden ! 多么美丽的花园啊!

  What a beautiful garden it is ! 多么美丽的花园啊!

  (在这种句式中,主语在谓语之前,属于自然语序。对于主语和谓语而言,语序没有倒装。)

  Have you ever seen such a naughty kid like him ! 你见过那个孩子像他这么调皮!

  C. 在陈述句中

  陈述句在一般情况下用自然语序;但由于英语语法的某些原因,陈述句也要使用倒装语序。这些原因大致可以归纳如下:

  1) 为了避免句子部分内容不必要的重复,常用"so + be动词(助动词、情态动词)+主语"或"neither / nor + be动词(助动词、情态动词)+主语"的倒装句式。

  其中第一个句式表示"与前面所述的肯定情况相同", 第二个句式表示"与前面所述的否定情况相同"。例如:

  His brother is a college student; so is mine.

  他弟弟是大学生,我弟弟也是。

  His brother is not a college student; nor is min .

  他弟弟不是大学生,我弟弟也不是。

  He used to have his further study abroad; so did I.

  他曾去国外深造过,我也去过。

  He didn't use to have his further study abroad; neither did I.

  他没去国外深造过,我也没有。

  One of my friends can speak three foreign languages; so can his wife.

  我的一个朋友会说三门外国语,他的妻子也会。

  One of my friends cannot speak three foreign languages; neither can his wife .

  我的一个朋友不会说三门外国语,他的妻子也不会。

  They are now preparing for their final examinations; so are we .

  他们正在为期末考试作准备,我们也一样。

  They are not now preparing for their final examinations; nor are we .

  他们没在为期末考试作准备,我们也没有。

  2)具有否定意义的词或短语置于句首时(除否定词修饰主语外),句子一般要写成部分倒装句。

  这类词或短语常见的有:

  not, never, seldom, hardly, rarely, scarcely, by no means, under no circumstances, in no way, at no time, no sooner … (than), hardly … (when), not only … (but also), not until… ,等。例如:

  Hardly had she sat down when she heard someone knocking at the door .

  她还没来得及坐下来,就听见有人敲门。

  Not until twelve o'clock did he go to bed last night .

  他昨晚直到十二点钟才睡觉。

  Never have my sisters been to Hong Kong before .

  我的妹妹们以前从未去过香港。

  No sooner had I returned home from New Zealand than I bought a house and went to live there.

  我从新西兰一回国,就买了一栋房子并在那儿住下了。

  So far as I know, seldom does Mary come back to see her mother.

  就我所知,玛利几乎很难回来看她妈妈。

  Scarcely a drop of rain fell here last fall . (否定词修饰主语时,句子不用倒装。)

  去年秋天,这儿几乎没下一滴雨。

  3)当so, often, only等表示程度、频率的副词放在句首时,句子一般要倒装。例如:Only in this way can you come up with a solution to the problem.

  只有这样,你才有可能想出解决这个问题的办法。

  So serious was the situation that everybody faced a test.

  形势如此地严峻,每个人都面临着一场考验。

  So hard did he overwork that he fell ill at last. 他太操劳过度以致最后病倒了。

  4)当there, here, then, now等副词在句首,且谓语是come, go, be等动词时,句子一般要全部倒装。

  其意义在于引起他人的注意。如果这类句子的主语是代词,则不用写成倒装句。例如:

  Now, here goes the story.这个故事是这样的。

  Look, there comes the taxi.瞧,出租车过来了。

  Then came another question.然后又一个问题提出来了。

  Then followed the four-year War of Liberation.接下来是四年的解放战争。

  5) 当out, in, away, up, bang等表示方位或拟声词放在句首时,句子一般要全部倒装。

  这类句子比自然语序的句子更为生动、形象。但如果这类句子的主语是代词,则不用写成倒装句。例如:

  Bang goes my ace.我砰地一下打出了"爱司"。

  Away flew the bird.那鸟飞走了。

  Suddenly, in came a man with a mask on his face.突然进来一个蒙着面具的人。

  6) 其他情况还有:省略了if的虚拟条件句、某些表示祝愿的句子、以及某些让步状语从句,等等也要用倒装句式。例如:

  (省略了if的虚拟条件句)Had they not helped us, we could not have done it so successfully.

  如果没有他们的帮助,我们不可能把那件事办的如此成功。

  Should he come, say "Nobody in" to him.

  万一他来了,对他说:"公司没人。"

  (某些表示祝愿的句子)May our friendship last forever.

  愿我们的友谊常存!

  May your company become prosperous.

  祝贵公司生意兴隆!

  (某些让步状语从句)Try as I might, I couldn't lift the stone.无论我使多大的劲,我也无法搬起那块石头。

  They said they would follow the Party's lead come what might.

  他们说无论发生什么情况,他们都会跟党走的。

  7) 由于修辞或是平衡句子的原因也可以用倒装句;也可以不用。这不是一条必须的规定。

  Next to this one is another grand hotel which is beautifully decorated .

  家饭店隔壁还有一家装修华丽的大饭店。

  On either side of the great avenue stood many block buildings.

  这条大街的两侧都耸立着许多综合楼。(这类句子也可以不用倒装句。)

  "I'm leaving for Beijing tomorrow," said Tom to his mother (OR: Tom said to his mother) .

  汤姆对他妈妈说:"我明天动身去北京。"

  Many block buildings stood on either side of the great avenue.

  许多综合楼耸立在这条大街的两侧。

  Another grand hotel, which is beautifully decorated, is next to this one .

  这家饭店隔壁还有一家大饭店,那家饭店装修十分华丽。

  完全倒装与部分倒装:

  1.完全倒装(Full Inversion):又称"全部倒装",是指将句子中的谓语全部置于主语之前。此结构通常只用于一般现在时和一般过去时。

  谓语+主语+……

  ①There be(的各种形式)+主语(+地点或时间状语)

  例子:

  There was a drop in the temperature.温度下降了

  There are brids singing in the tree.鸟儿在树上唱歌。

  ②副词小品词+谓语动词+名词主语+……

  ③过去分词或现在分词+be的各种形式+主语+……

  2.部分倒装(Partial Inversion)(又称半倒装句):

  指将谓语的一部分如助动词或情态动词倒装至主语之前,而谓语动词无变化。

  如果句中的谓语没有助动词或情态动词,则需添加助动词do,does或did,并将其置于主语之前。

  英语句子的倒装一是由于语法结构的需要而进行的倒装,二是由于修辞的需要而进行的倒装。

  前一种情况,倒装是必须的,否则就会出现语法错误;

  后一种情况,倒装是选择性的,倒装与否只会产生表达效果上的差异。

  倒装的作用:

  通常是希望强调句中的某一部分

  1. 当以there, here, out , in , up , down, away 等副词开头的句子,为了起到强调的作用,可构成倒装句,只把副词放在句首,主语和谓语位置调换,不加助动词。

  Our teacher came in.

  In came our teacher.

  这种倒装要求:主语必须是名词。主语是人称代词时,主语和谓语语序不变。

  Here it is.

  Away he went.

  这类倒装句式一般只用一般现在时和一般过去时。

  Here comes the bus.

  Out rushed the boys.

  2. how, then, just, often 表示时间的副词放在句首,可构成倒装句,只把副词放在句首,主语和谓语位置调换,不加助动词。

  Then came 8 years of the Anti Japanese War.

  3. 表地点状语的介词短语放在句首,要用倒装句式,以示强调。

  这种倒装句也是主谓直接调换位置,不加助动词did, does或do.

  Under a big tree sat a fat man  half asleep.

  4. there放在句首时,要用倒装句式。

  在“there + be”结构中的谓语动词有时不用be , 而用表示类似“存在”观念的其他不及物动词。如:

  live, stand, come, lie, flow, enter, rise 和appear等。

  There came shouts for help from the river.

  There lies a large wheat field in front of the house.

  Many years ago there lived an old man in the wooden house.

  In front of the tower flews a stream.

  5. so + 动词+主语

  neither/ nor + 动词+主语

  表示两人的同样一个情况时,只能表示一件事,即上、下句所使用的动词、时态要一致。

  否则要用so it is with…

  You can ride a bike. So can I .

  He has been to Beijing. So have I .

  The first one isn’t good, neither is the second.

  His uncle is a worker and has been working in the factory for more than ten years. So it is with his aunt.

  6. so+ 形容词/副词that 的结构状语从句可以用正常语序表示,也可以把so+形容词/副词放于句首构成倒装。

  句型如下: so +形容词/副词+be/助动词/情态动词that +从句。

  Light travels so fast that it is difficult for us to imagine its speed.

  = So fast does light travel that it is difficult for us to imagine its speed.

  So easy was the work that they finished it in a few days.

  7. done做形容词在句中做表语时,常把表语放在句首,要用倒装句式。

  Gone forever are the days when the Chinese people had to use foreign oil.

  8. 否定副词not , never, seldom, nowhere, little , rarely 放于句首时要用倒装句式。

  We seldom get up at four in the morning.

  = Seldom do we get up at four in the morning.

  Not a single word from him could the enemy drag.

  Rarely have I heard of such a silly thing.

  9. hardly…when; scarcely…when…; no sooner…than… 可以用正常语序 had hardly done when… did 或用倒装句式Hardly had + 主语+ done when… did 句式。

  hardly所在的句子用过去完成时。

  The bell hardly had rung when the class began.= Hardly had the bell rung when the class began.

  No sooner had he arrived in Beijing than he began to work.

  10. not only… but also 如连接两个成分时,不用倒装;连接句子时,前面的句子要用倒装。

  Not only was everything that he had taken away from him, but also his German citizenship.

  Not only is he busy, but also I have a lot of work to do.

  Not only does he speak English very well, but also he speaks French well.

  11. only 及所修饰的副词、介词短语或状语从句放在句首时,要用:

  only+ 状语+ be /助动词/情态动词+主语及其他

  Only when he told me the news did I know what had happened.

  Only in this way can you make progress in your English.

  12. 虚拟语气中的倒装句

  If I were you, I would take the job. = Were I you, I would take the job.

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