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 栏目类别:知识点 >> 初中 >> 英语

宾语从句

  宾语从句:

  在句子中起宾语作用的从句叫做宾语从句。

  宾语从句分为三类:动词的宾语从句,介词的宾语从句和形容词的宾语从句。

  宾语从句连接代词主要有:

  who, whom ,whose ,what ,whoever ,whomever ,whosever, whatever, whichever 等。

  宾语从句的特点:

  1.宾语从句可以作及物动词、介词及形容词的宾语。

  2.宾语从句的语序一律用陈述句语序。

  3.连接词that引导宾语从句在句中无词义,不充当句子成份,多数情况下可以省略。

  4.whether 和 if 都可引导宾语从句,但 whether后可紧跟or not;whether从句可作介词的宾语。

  5.如果从句太长,可以用形式宾语it.

  宾语从句的时态:

  1.主句是一般现在时,从句根据实际情况使用任何时态。

  例句:The headmaster hopes everything goes well.

  2.主句是过去时态,从句须用过去时态的某种形式。

  例句:She was sorry that she hadn’t finished her work on time.

  3.当宾语从句表示的是一个客观真理或者事实时,即使主句是过去时,从句也用一般现在时态。

  例句:The teacher told his class that light travels faster than sound.

  4. 如果从句的动作发生在主句之前,则从句要用过去完成时态。

  宾语从句的语序:

  A. 宾语从句必须用陈述语序。

  False: He is wondering when can he finish this difficult job.

  Right: He is wondering when he can finish this difficult job.

  B. 有时候可以用it 作形式宾语,而把真正的宾语从句放在后面。

  Bad: I thought that he could finish this job in just two hours impossible.

  Good: I thought it impossible that he could finish this job in just two hours.

  C. 带有宾语从句的复合句的否定形式一般是否定主句。

  Bad: I think he doesn’t like the English teacher.

  Good: I don’t think he likes the English teacher.

  D.  主句一般过去时态,从句也要用过去时态。

  False: He wanted to know why he is crying in the corner.

  Right: He wanted to know why he was crying in the corner

  宾语从句的否定转移:

  主句的谓语动词是think,believe,imagine,suppose,consider,espect,fancy,guess等。

  并且主句的主语是第一人称而且为一般现在时,从句的否定词一般要转移到主句上来,其反义疑问句一般与宾语从句一致。

  I don’t think he will come to my party.而不能说成I think he won’t come to my party.

  我认为他不会来我的舞会.

  I don’t believe that man is killed by Jim,is he?

  我认为那个人不是Jim所杀的,是不是?

  如果宾语从句中有某个含有否定意义的形容词或副词,其反义疑问句要用肯定形式。

  We find that he never listens to the teacher carefully,does he?

  我们发现他从来不仔细听老师讲课,是不是?

  宾语从句中引导词的用法比较

  在复合句中作主句的宾语,引导词有:

  连词:that (that 常可省略),whether, if

  代词:who, whose, what ,which

  副词:when ,where, how, why 等。

  (一)that引导的宾语从句(在非正式场合that可以省略)

  1.可跟that从句做宾语的动词有:

  say, think, insist, wish, hope, demand, imagine, wonder, know, suppose, see, believe, agree, admit, deny, expect, explain, order, command, feel, dream, suggest, hear, mean, notice, prefer, request, require, propose, declare, report等。

  例句:The boy believes that he will travel through space to other planets.

  注意事项:当主句谓语动词是 think, believe, suppose, expect 等词,而宾语从句的意思是否定时,常把否定转移至主句表示。

  例句:I don’t think it is right for him to treat you like that.

  2.在以下情况中that不能省略

  a.当句中的动词后接多于两个由that引导的宾语从句时,第一个that可省,但后面的that不可省。

  例句:He said (that) you were too young to understand the matter and that he was asked not to tell you.

  b.当主句的谓语动词与that宾语从句之间有插入语时,that一般不可省。

  例句:Just then I noticed, for the first time, that our master was wearing his fine green coat and his black silk cap.

  c.当that从句是双宾语中的直接宾语时,that不可省。

  例句:I can’t tell him that his mother died.

  d.注:许多带复合宾语的句子,that引导的宾语从句经常移到句子后部,而用it作形式宾语。

  例句:I find it necessary that we should do the homework on time.

  (二)由whether,if 引导的宾语从句

  1.由whether(if)引导的宾语从句,实际上是一般疑问句演变而来的。意思是“是否”。宾语从句要用陈述句语序。

  一般说来,在宾语从句中whether与if可以互换使用,但在特殊情况下if与whether是不能互换的。

  例句:I wonder whether(if) they will come to our party.

  2.只能用whether,不能用if引导的宾语从句

  a.在带to的不定式前

  例句:We decided whether to walk there.

  b.在介词的后面

  例句:I’m thinking of whether we should go to see the film.

  c.在动词后面的宾语从句时

  例句:We discussed whether we had a sports meeting next week

  d.直接与or not连用时

  例句:I can’t say whether or not thet can come on time.

  3.只能用if不能用whether引导的宾语从句

  a.if引导条件状语从句,意为“如果”

  例句:The students will go on a picnic if it is sunny.

  b.if引导否定概念的宾语从句时

  例句:He asked if I didn’t come to school yesterday.

  c.引导状语从句even if(即使)和as if(好象)时

  例句:He talks as if he has known all about it.

  if,whether在宾语从句中的区别

  a.if和whether在作“是否”解时,引导宾语从句常放在动词know,ask,care,wonder,find out等之后,介词后一般不用if

  b.少数动词,如:leave,put,discuss,doubt后的宾语从句常用whether.

  c. whether后可以加or not,但是if不可以.

  d.在不定式前只能用whether.

  (如:I can’t decide whether to stay. 我不能决定是否留下。)

  e.避免歧异时,我们常用whether而不用if.

  (三)连接代词和连接副词引导的宾语从句

  这样的宾语从句实际上是由特殊疑问句变化而来的,宾语从句要用陈述句语序。

  用于这种结构的动词常常是:see, say, tell, ask, answer, know, decide, show, find out, imagine, suggest, doubt, wonder, discover, understand, inform, advise等。

  1.英语中的连接代词有:who,whom,whose,which,what,在句中担任主语、宾语、定语或者表语。

  例句:Can you tell me whom you are waiting for?

  2.英语中的连接副词有:when,where,why,how,在句中担任状语的成分。

  例句:None of us knows where these new parts can be bought.

  简化宾语从句常用六法:

  方法一:

  当主句谓语动词是hope, decide, wish, choose, agree, promise等,

  且宾语从句的主语与主句主语一致时,宾语从句可简化为不定式结构。

  例如:

  Li Ming hopes he will be back very soon.

  →Li Ming hopes to be back very soon.

  We decided that we would help him.

  →We decided to help him.

  方法二:当主句谓语动词是know, learn, remember, forget, tell等动词,

  且主句主语与从句主语一致时,宾语从句可简化为“疑问词+不定式”结构。例如:

  She has forgotten how she can open the window.

  →She has forgotten how to open the window.

  注:当主句谓语动词是tell, ask, show, teach等动词,

  且后带双宾语,从句主语和间接宾语一致时,宾语从句可简化为“疑问词+不定式”结构。例如:

  Could you tell me how I can get to the station?

  →Could you tell me how to get to the station?

  方法三:当主句的谓语动词是order(命令),require(需要)等时,

  如果主句和从句的主语不一致,宾语从句可简化为“名词(代词)+不定式”结构。例如:

  The headmaster ordered that we should start at once.

  → The headmaster ordered us to start at once.

  方法四:某些动词后的宾语从句,可以用介词加动名词(短语)等其他形式简化。例如:

  He insisted that he should go with us.

  →He insisted on going with us.

  The poor boy doesn’t know when and where he was born.

  →The poor boy doesn’t know the time and the place of his birth.

  方法五:某些动词后面的宾语从句可转化为“宾语+V-ing形式(作宾语补足语)”结构。例如:

  Liu Ping found that there was a wallet lying on the ground.

  → Liu Ping found a wallet lying on the ground.

  方法六:动词seem后的宾语从句,也可以用不定式(短语)来简化,但句型需要进行适当的变化。例如:

  It seemed that the boys were going to win.

  →The boys seemed to win.

  除上述方法外,还有一些特殊句式的转化。例如:

  I found that it was difficult to learn English well.

  →I found it difficult to learn English well.

  Soon we found that the ground was covered with thick snow.

  →Soon we found the ground covered with thick snow.

  They found that the box was very heavy.

  →They found the box very heavy

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