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 栏目类别:知识点 >> 初中 >> 英语

将来完成时

  (十二)将来完成时

  将来完成时用来表示在将来某一时间以前已经完成或一直持续的动作。经常与before+将来时间或by+将来时间连用,也可与before或by the time引导的现在时的从句连用。

  ?       将来完成时的构成

  将来完成时的构成是由"shall/will + have +过去分词"构成的。

  例如:

  Before long he will have forgotten all about the matter.

  不久他就会全然忘记这件事的。

  He is somebody now. He will not have remembered his old classmates.

  他现在是一个有身份的人了,他可能不会记得老同学了。

  Will you have known Kevin for 10 years next month?

  到下个月你认识凯文该有10年了吧?

  ?       将来完成时的用法

  ①表示在将来某一时间之前已完成的动作,并往往对将来某一时间产生影响。

  We shall have learned 12 units by the end of this term.

  到这个学期末,我们将学完12个单元。

  By the time you get home I will have cleaned the house from top to bottom.

  你到家之前我将把房子彻底打扫一遍。

  ②表示推测,相当于"must have done"结构。

  You will have heard of this, I guess.

  我想你已经听说过这件事了。

  I am sure he will have got the information.

  我相信他一定得到了这个信息。

  (十三)过去将来时

  ?       基本用法

  过去将来时表示在过去某个时间看来将要发生的动作或存在的状态。即:过去将来时是“立足过去,着眼未来”的一种时态, 常用于宾语从句中。判断这种时态的依据是:要有表示过去的“动作”,而不是时间。如:

  I heard that they were going to return to Shanghai soon.

  我听说他们不久要回到上海。

  ?       基本构成

  ①由助动词“would/should+动词原形”构成,should主要用于主语是第一人称时;would可用于各种人称。如:

  Whenever we had trouble, he would come to help us.

  不论何时我们遇到困难,他总会给予帮助。

  ②由“was/were going to+动词原形”构成。如:

  No one knew when he was going to come.

  没有人知道他什么时候来。

  过去将来时常用于宾语从句和间接引语中。例如:

  I didn’t know if he would come.

  我不知道他是否会来。

  They never knew that population would become a big problem.

  他们从来都不知道人口问题将会成为一个大问题。

  She didn’t tell me where she would go.

  她没有告诉我她要去哪儿。

  Betty said she would visit the Great Wall next Saturday.

  贝蒂说下周六她要去参观长城。

  1.      过去将来时的表达法 (四种情况)

  I.            “would+动词原形”。常表示按计划或安排即将发生的事。例如

  He said he would come to see me.

  他说他要来看我。

  He told me he would go to Beijing.

  他告诉我他将去北京。

  II.       “was/ were +going to+动词原形”。常可用来表示按计划或安排即将发生的事。例如:

  She said she was going to start off at once.

  她说她将立即出发。

  I was told that he was going to return home.

  有人告诉我他准备回家。

  此结构还可表示根据当时情况判断有可能但不一定会发生某事。例如:

  It seemed as if it was going to rain.

  看来好像要下雨。

  III.   come, go, leave, arrive, start等动词可用过去进行时代替过去将来时。例如:

  He said the train was leaving at six the next morning.

  他说火车将于第二天早晨六点离开。

  She told me she was coming to see me.

  她告诉我她要来看我。

  IV.       条件状语从句和时间状语从句中须用一般过去时代替过去将来时。例如:

  I didn’t know when she would come, but when she came I would let you know.

  我不知道她什么时候来,但她来了我会告诉你。

  The teacher said that it would be very difficult to make progress if I didn’t work hard.

  老师说,如果我不努力学习的话,就很难取得进步。

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