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 栏目类别:知识点 >> 初中 >> 英语

现在完成进行时

  现在完成进行时:

  是英语中,动词的一种基本时态,其构成为:主语+have/has+been+现在分词+其他成分。

  基本结构:

  I/we/theyhavebeen+动词的现在分词

  He/she/ithasbeen+动词的现在分词

  在当代英语中,现在完成进行时有时也可用否定结构。如:

  Since that unfortunate accident last week, I haven’t been sleeping at all well.

  自从上周发生了那次不幸事故之后,我一直睡得很不好.

  He hasn’t been working for me and I haven’t had that much contact with him.

  他并没有给我工作过,我和他没有过那许多接触。

  否定句构成:

  主语+has/have+not+been+现在分词+其他

  一般疑问句构成:

  Have/has+主语+been+现在分词+其他

  现在完成进行时主要用法:

  (一)表示从过去某时开始一直持续到现在的动作,并且还将持续下去。

  The Chinese have been making paper for two thousand years.

  中国有2000年的造纸历史。

  (动作还将继续下去)

  I have been learning English since three years ago.

  自从三年前以来我一直在学英语。

  (动作还将继续下去)I study for English since 10 years ago.

  (二)表示在说话时刻之前到现在正在进行的动作。

  We have been waiting for you for half an hour.

  我们已经等你半个钟头了

  (人还没到,如同在电话里说的,还会继续等)

  (三)有些现在完成进行时的句子等同于现在完成时的句子。

  They have been living in this city for ten years.

  They have lived in this city for ten years.

  他们在这个城市已经住了10年了。

  I have been working here for five years.

  I have worked here for five years.

  我在这里已经工作五年了。

  (四)大多数现在完成进行时的句子不等同于现在完成时的句子。

  I have been writing a book.(动作还将继续下去)

  我一直在写一本书。

  I have written a book.(动作已经完成)

  我已经写了一本书。

  They have been building a bridge.

  他们一直在造一座桥。

  They have built a bridge.

  他们造了一座桥。

  (五)表示状态的动词不能用于现在完成进行时。

  I have known him for years.

  我认识他已经好几年了。

  I have been knowing...

  这类不能用于现在完成进行时的动词还有:love爱,like喜欢,hate讨厌,等等。

  (六)一些现在完成时的句子也与现在完成进行时的句子含义相同

  延续性动词在现在完成时与现在完成进行时时态中使用,句意相同。例如:

  She has slept for 6 hours and still can not wake up.

  She has been sleeping for 6 hours and still cannot wake up.

  (七)表示现在以前一直在进行的动作强调动作的未完成性

  It has been raining for 3 days。

  现在完成进行时与现在完成时的区别:

  1. 现在完成时强调动作的完成,而现在完成进行时强调动作的延续,因此,表示动作的完成,只能用现在完成时,而不能用现在完成进行时。如:

  He has changed his idea. 他改变了想法。

  2. 在表示动作的延续时,虽然既可用现在完成时,也可用现在完成进行时,但现在完成进行时强调动作的进行。

  因此在需要明确表示动作还要持续下去时,应用现在完成进行时。如:

  We have been studying here for two years. 我们在这儿已经学习了两年了。

  3. 在许多情况下,现在完成时表示动作已经完成,而现在完成进行时却并非如此。如:

  He has cleaned the window. 他把窗户擦干净了。(动作已完成)

  He has been cleaning the window. 他一直在擦窗户。(动作不一定完成)

  4. 有些静态动词只能用于现在完成时,一般不能用于现在完成进行时。如:

  I’ve known him for many years. 我认识他有许多年了。

  The war has lasted for a long time. 这场战争持续了很长时间。

  5. 有少数动词(如live, work, teach, study等)用两种时态都可以,意思差别不大。如:

  I’ve lived [been living] here for 30 years. 我在这儿住了30年了。

  How long have you worked [been working] here? 你在这里工作多久了?

  6. 现在完成时与现在完成进行时的相通性:在表达一个从过去开始而现在仍在继续或刚刚结束的动作时,某些动词既可以用现在完成时,也可以用现在完成进行时,如:

  expect, hope, learn, lie, live, look, rain, sleep, sit, snow, stand, stay, study, teach, wait, want, work等。如:

  你学习英语多久了?

  正:How long have yon learnt English?

  正:How long have you been learning English?

  他已经睡了十个小时了。

  正:He has slept for ten hours.

  正:He has been sleeping for ten hours.

  过去完成时与现在完成区别:

  1)过去时表示过去某时发生的动作或单纯叙述过去的事情,强调动作;

  现在完成时为过去发生的,强调过去的事情对现在的影响,强调的是影响。例:

  I saw this film yesterday.

  (强调看的动作发生过了。)

  I have seen this film.

  (强调对现在的影响,电影的内容已经知道了。)

  Why did you get up so early?

  (强调起床的动作已发生过了。)

  Who hasn't handed in his paper?

  (强调有包装,可能为不公平竞争。)

  2)过去时常与具体的时间状语连用,而现在完成时通常与模糊的时间状语连用,或无时间状语。

  一般过去时的时间状语:yesterday, last week,…ago, in1980, in October, just now, 具体的时间状语

  现在完成时的时间状语:for, since, so far, ever, never, just, yet, till / until, up to now, in past years, always,不确定的时间状语

  共同的时间状语:this morning, tonight,this April, now, once,before, already, recently,lately例:

  She has returned from Paris.

  她已从巴黎回来了。

  She returned yesterday.

  她是昨天回来了。

  3)现在完成时可表示持续到现在的动作或状态,动词一般是延续性的,如live, teach, learn, work, study, know.

  过去时常用的非持续性动词有come, go, leave, start, die, finish, become, get married等。例:

  He has been in the League for three years.

  (在团内的状态可延续)

  He has been a League member for three years.

  (是团员的状态可持续)

  He joined the League three years ago.

  ( 三年前入团,joined为短暂行为。)

  I have finished my homework now.

  ---Will somebody go and get Dr. White?

  ---He's already been sent for.

  4)句子中如有过去时的时间副词(如 yesterday, last, week, in 1960)时,不能使用现在完成时,要用过去时。

  (错)Tom has written a letter to his parents last night.

  (对)Tom wrote a letter to his parents last night.

  与现在完成进行连用的主要时间状语:

  现在完成进行时所用的时间状语:

  all day / month; this month / week / year; these days; recently / lately; in the past few + 时间段; since +时间点; for + 时间段,等等。如:

  He has been working all day. 他整天都在工作。

  They have been building the bridge for two month. 两个月来他们一直在修桥。

  They have been planting trees this month. 这个月来他们一直在植树。

  Car sales have been shrinking recently. 汽车销量近来一直在下降。

  Vera has been trying to learn Chinese for years. 维拉努力学汉语已有好几年了。

  He has been sleeping for ten hours. 他已经睡了十个小时了。

  Jim has been phoning Jenny every night for the last week. 上星期,吉姆天天晚上都给詹妮打电话。

  The two parties have been trying to unite since the New Year. 自从新年以来,双方就一直在试图联手。

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