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 栏目类别:知识点 >> 初中 >> 英语

副词

  副词:

  是一种用来修饰动词、形容词、全句的词,说明时间、地点、程度、方式等概念的词。副词是一种半虚半实的词。

  副词可分为:地点副词、方式副词、程度副词、疑问副词和连接副词。

  副词连用顺序:程度副词+方式副词+地点副词+时间副词。

  副词分类:

  1、时间副词有三类:always, often, usually, sometimes, never, ever, hardly等一般位于系动词、情态动词和助动词之后,实之前义动词

  1)表示发生时间的副词:

  It’s beginning to rain now!  现在开始下雨了!

  2)表示频繁程度的副词,也称频度副词always, often, usually, sometimes, never, ever, hardly等一般位于系动词、情态动词和助动词之后,实之前义动词:

  She often changes her mind.  她常改变主意。

  3)还有一些其他表示时间的副词:

  He has just had an operation. 他刚动过手术。

  2、地点副词:

  1)有不少表示地点的副词:

  She is studying abroad.  她在国外留学。

  2)还有一些部分与介词同形的副词。它们与介词同形,跟宾语的是介词,否则是副词:

  ①用作介词:Stand up!  起立!

  ②用作副词:A cat climbed up the tree.  猫爬上了树。

  3)以where 构成的副词也是地点副词:

  It’s the same everywhere.  到处都一样。

  3、方式副词:

  carefully, properly(适当地), anxiously(焦虑地), suddenly, normally(正常地), fast, well, calmly(冷静地), politely(有礼貌地), proudly(自豪地), softly, warmly ,slowly

  4、程度副词:

  much,little, very,rather(相当),so,too,still, quite, perfectly(完美地), enough, extremely(非常), entirely(整个),almost, slightly(细小地), hardly.

  5、疑问副词:

  how, when, where, why.

  6、关系副词:

  when, where, why.等。

  7、 连接副词:

  therefore(因此),moreover(此外),however,otherwise(另外的),then,when ,where,how,why等。

  副词的语法作用:

  副词在句中可作状语,表语,补语,定语。

  He works hard. (作状语)

  他工作努力。

  You speak English very well. (作状语)

  你英语讲的相当好。

  Is she in ? (作表语)

  她在家吗?

  Let's be out. (作表语)

  让我们出去吧。

  Food here is hardly to get. (here作定语,hardly作状语)

  这儿很难弄到食物。

  Let him out!(作补语)

  让他出去!

  修饰名词的副词放在被修饰词之后

  a. The villagers there are busy getting in wheat.

  不同类型副词的用法比较:

  方式副词:

  1)英语中有大量方式副词,说明行为方式(回答how的问题):

  How beautifully your wife dances.  你夫人舞跳的真美。

  2)还有相当多的副词,表示某些情绪:

  She smiled gratefully.  她感激的笑了笑。

  3)还有一些以-ly结尾的副词,表示动作发生的状况:

  He left the town secretly. 他悄然离开了这座城市。

  程度副词和强调副词 :

  1)程度副词可修饰动词,表示“到某种程度”:   Is she badly hurt?  她伤得重吗?

  [说明] 这类副词除修饰动词外,还可修饰形容词(a)或另一副词(b):

  a. fairly simple 相当简单      quite correct 完全正确

  b. wonderfully well 好极了    do it very quickly 干得很快

  2)much 是一个特殊的程度副词,它可以:

  a. 修饰形容词等:

  I’m not much good at singing. 我唱歌不太好。

  b. 修饰比较级:

  You sing much better than me. 你比我唱的好多了。

  Their house is much nicer than ours. 他们的房子比我们的好多了。

  疑问副词和连接副词:

  1)疑问副词:疑问副词用来引导特殊问句:

  how: How is your grandmother? 你奶奶身体好吗?

  where: Where does she come from? 她是哪儿人?

  when: When can you come? 你什么时候能来?

  why: Why was he so late? 他为什么来得这么晚?

  2)连接副词:连接副词意思和词形都和疑问副词一样,但都引导从句或与不定式连用:

  how: Do you know how to start this machine? 你知道这台机器怎样启动吗?

  where: I don’t know where he lives. 我不知道他住在哪儿。(引导宾语从句)

  when: Tell me when you’ll be ready. 告诉我你什么时候准备好。(引导宾语从句)

  why: That’s why I came round. 这就是我来的原因。(引导表语从句)

  一些其它类型的副词,如表示方向的副词:

  Let’s go inside. 咱们到里面去。

  Take two steps forward. 向前走两步。

  副词的位置:

  1、实义动词前,be动词、情态动词之后。

  I am also Bush.

  I can also do that.

  I also want to play that games.

  I get up early in the morning everyday. 我每天早早起床。

  He gave me a gift yesterday. 他昨天给了我一件礼物。

  She didn't drink water enough. 她喝的水不够。

  The train goes fast. 火车跑得快。

  We can go to this school freely. 我们可以免费到这家学校学习。

  They left a life hardly then. 当时他们的生活很艰难。

  He has a new hat on today. 他今天戴了一顶新帽子。

  I have seen this film twice with my friends. 这部电影我和朋友看过两次。

  2、副词修饰形容词,副词时,副词在前面,而被修饰的词在后面。

  It's rather easy, I can do it. 这很容易,我能做到。

  He did it quite well. 他做得相当好。

  It's rather difficult to tell who is right.很难说谁是对的。

  It's so important that I must tell my friends. 这件事太重要了,我得告诉我的朋友。

  It's much better. 好多了。

  3、频度副词可放在实义动词的前面,情态动词和助动词的后面。

  I often help him these days. 这些日子我经常帮助他。

  I always remember the day when I first came to this school.

  我常常记得我第一次来学校的那一天。

  You mustn't always help me. 你不能老是帮助我。

  He seldom comes to see us. 他很少来看我们。

  We usually go shopping once a week. 我们通常一周买一次东西。

  The new students don't always go to dance. 新学生并不时常去跳舞。

  4、疑问副词,连接副词,关系副词以及修饰整个句子的副词,通常放在句子或从句的前面。

  When do you study everyday? 你每天什么时间学习?

  Can you tell me how you did it? 你能告诉我你如何做的吗?

  First, let me ask you some questions. 先让我来问几个问题。

  How much does this bike cost? 这辆车子多少钱?

  Either you go or he comes. 不是你去就是他来。

  The students were reading when the teacher came into the classroom. 当老师进教室时,学生们正在读书。

  5、时间副词和地点副词在一个句中, 地点副词在前面时间副词在后面。

  We went shopping in the supermarket at 9 o'clock yesterday.

  昨天九点钟我们到超市买东西了.

  What were you doing in the classroom yesterday afternoon?

  昨天下午你在教室里干什么?

  The accident took place in the Eleven Avenue one hour ago.

  一小时前十一号大街发生了一场事故。

  6、否定副词在句首,句子要倒装,如:

  Never have I felt so excited!

  兼有两种形式的副词:

  1) close与closely

  close意思是"近"; closely 意思是"仔细地"

  He is sitting close to me.

  Watch him closely.

  2) late 与lately

  late意思是"晚"; lately 意思是"最近"

  You have come too late.

  What have you been doing lately?

  3) deep与deeply

  deep意思是"深",表示空间深度;deeply时常表示感情上的深度,"深深地"

  He pushed the stick deep into the mud.

  Even father was deeply moved by the film.

  4) high与highly

  high表示空间高度;highly表示程度,相当于much

  The plane was flying high.

  I think highly of your opinion.

  5) wide与widely

  wide表示空间宽度;widely意思是"广泛地","在许多地方"

  He opened the door wide.

  English is widely used in the world.

  6) free与freely

  free的意思是"免费";freely 的意思是"无限制地"

  You can eat free in my restaurant whenever you like.

  You may speak freely; say what you like.

  副词有加a或ly的 区别在于通常加a 的副词描述一种状态,而加ly 的副词则倾向于感觉。

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