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 栏目类别:知识点 >> 初中 >> 英语

形容词

  形容词:

  简称adj.或a,形容词用来修饰名词或代词,表示人或事物的性质、状态,和特征的程度好坏与否,形容词在句中作定语,表语,宾语补足语。

  她是一个好学生,她学习努力。She is a good student, and she works hard.

  这辆自行车很贵。This bike is expensive.

  对不起,我现在很忙。I am sorry, I'm busy now.

  你为这次会议做好准备了吗? Have you got everything ready for the meeting?

  形容词的语法功能:

  一、作定语

  He is the greatest writer alive.他是依然健在的伟大的作家。

  Somewone else has done it.别人已经做了这事。

  二、作补语

  形容词做主语补足语和宾语补足语时,可以表示其现状、状态,也可以表示某一动作的结果,并常用在表示“认为,看待”的动词如believe,prove,consider等候。例如:

  The news made her sad.这消息使他感到非常悲伤。

  Don't marry young.不要早婚。

  三、作状语

  形容词或形容词短语可作状语,形容词作状语时,可以看作是“being+形容词”结构的省略,可表示时间、原因、条件、方式、强调或伴随状况等意义。例如:

  Enthusiastic,they are co-operative.热心的时候他们是很合作的。

  Rich or poor, young or old, we all have problems.不管是穷人还是富人,不管是年轻人还是老人,我们都有问题。

  四、做表语

  The ship was adrift on unknown seas.那艘船在陌生的海域漂流。

  五、做主语

  Old and young joined the discussion.

  Rich or poor meant the same to him.作感叹语

  Very good!Say it again.

  Stupid!He must be crasy.

  形容词的几个特殊用法:

  most 同形容词连用而不用 the, 表示 " 极,很,非常, 十分"。

  It's most dangerous to be here. 在这儿太危险。

  I cannot do it, it's most difficult. 我干不了这件事,太难了。

  "The+形容词比较级..., the+形容词比较级..." 表示 " 越... 就越..."。

  The more you study, the more you know. 你学的越多, 就知道的越多。

  The more I have, the more I want. 我越有就越想要有。

  The more, the better. 越多越好。

  " 形容词比较级 + and + 形容词比较级 ", 表示 " 越来越... "。

  It's getting hotter and hotter. 天气越来越热了.

  It's pity he is getting poorer and poorer. 真可怜他越来越穷了。

  The computer is cheaper and cheaper. 计算机越来越便宜。

  The more and more people focus on the meeting next year. 越来越多的人关注明年的会议。

  主语+谓语(系动词)+as+形容词原形+as+从句。表示两者对比相同。

  This box is as big as mine. 这个盒子和我的一样大。

  This coat is as cheap as that one. 这件衣服同那件衣服一样便宜。

  I study English as hard as my brother. 我同我兄弟一样学习努力。

  the + 形容词 表示某种人。

  He always helps the poor. 他经常帮助穷人。

  I like to have a talk with the young. 我喜欢同年轻人谈话。

  The rich sometimes complain their empty life. 富人有时抱怨他们空虚的生活。

  The police led the old man across the street. 警察领老人横过马路。

  以-ly结尾的形容词

  1) 大部分形容词加-ly可构成副词。但 friendly,deadly,lovely,lonely,likely,lively,brotherly,仍为形容词。

  改错:(错) She sang lovely.             (错) He spoke to me very friendly.

  (对) Her singing was lovely.  (对) He spoke to me in a very friendly way.

  2)有些以-ly 结尾的词既为形容词,也为副词。

  daily,weekly,monthly,yearly,early

  The Times is a daily paper.

  The Times is published daily.

  too+adj.+to句型   “太…而不能”

  He is too young to go to school.

  =He isn’t old enough to go to school.

  =He is so young that he can’t go to school.

  形容词的位置:

  1.形容词一般放在名词前作定语

  单个形容词修饰名词时,一般要放在名词的前面。它们的前面常常带有冠词、形容词性物主代词、指示代词、数词等。例如:

  a red flower一朵红花

  an interesting story一个有趣的故事

  six blind men 六个盲人

  my own house我自己的房子

  如果有两个或两个以上的形容词修饰一个名词时,则由它们和被修饰的名词之间的密切程度而定,越密切的形容词越靠近名词。

  如果几个形容词的密切程度差不多则按音节少的形容词放在前面,音节多的形容词放在后面。

  2.当形容词所修饰的词是由some,any,every,no等构成的不定代词时,形容词必须置于名词之后。例如:

  She has something new to tell me. 她有一些新的情况告诉我。

  I have nothing important to do today. 今天我没有重要的工作要做。

  Do you know anybody else here? 这儿你还有认识的人吗?

  3.形容词后面有介词短语或不定式短语时,形容词必须置于名词之后。例如:

  It is a problem difficult to work out. 这是一道难以解决的问题。

  Edison is a student difficult to teach. 爱迪生是个很难教的学生。

  This is a kind of flowers easy to grow. 这是一种易栽的花。

  4.用 and 或 or 连接起来的两个形容词作定语时一般把它们放在被修饰的名词后面。起进一步解释的作用。例如:

  All people,young or old,should be strict with themselves.

  所有的人,无论老少,都应该严格要求自己。

  We are building a new school, modern and super.

  我们正在建一所现代化的高档次的新型学校。

  All countries, rich and poor, should help one another. 所有的国家,无论穷富都应该互相帮助。

  5.有少数形容词,如enough和possible,既可置于所修饰的名词前面也可以置于它所修饰的名词之后。例如:

  Do you have enough time(time enough)to prepare?你有足够的时间做准备吗?

  Maybe it will be a possible chance(chance possible)for you.或许它将成为一次可能的机遇。

  6.有些形容词,置于名词之前与之后,含义不尽相同。例如:

  the writer present 出席的作者

  the present writer 现在的作者

  7.表示长,宽,高,深,及年龄的形容词,应放在相应的名词之后。

  This river is about 100 metres wide.

  The building is more than 50 metres tall.

  He is less than 40 years old.

  8. enough修饰名词时,在名词前后都可以。

  They said that they had enough food.= They said that they had food enough.

  enough 修饰形容词和副词,位于其后。

  He is old enough to join the army.

  He isn’t old enough to go to school.

  9.形容词else通常放在疑问代词,疑问副词或不定代词后

  what/who/where/when/when else

  something/anything/nothing…else

  What else did you do?

  Do you have anything else to say?

  10.由两个或两个以上的词组成的形容词词组修饰名词时须放在名词之后。

  This is the book easy to read.

  这是一本容易读的书。

  形容词知识拓展:

  名词化的形容词:

  有些形容词可以和定冠词连用,表示一类人或事物,这时,它相当于一个名词,可作主语或宾语;

  表示一类人时,看作复数,表示一类事物时,通常看作单数。

  Robin Hooh(罗宾汉) hated the rich and loved the poor.

  The old are taken good  care of in American.

  the+形容词,常见的短语有:

  the old/the young/the sick/the white/

  the black/the rich/the poor/the dead(死者)

  形似副词的形容词:

  以-ly结尾的词通常是副词,但是下列词为形容词。

  friendly  lonely (孤独的) ;lively (活着的);lovely(可爱的)

  复合形容词的类型:

  (1)名词+过去分词  man-made satellite 人造卫星

  (2)形容词+现在分词  a good-looking man

  (3)形容词+名词  second-hand cars

  (4)数词+名词-ed   three-legged chairs三条腿的椅子

  (5)数词+名词  400- metre race

  (6)副词+现在分词  hard-working students

  (7)副词+过去分词  well-known writers

  (8)形容词+形容词  a dark-red jacket

  (9)形容词+过去分词  ready-made clothes 成品服装

  含有形容词的常用句型:

  (1) It’s+adj. of sb. to do sth.

  (good/ kind/nice/polite/clever/foolish… )

  It’s very kind of you to help me.

  (2) It’s +adj. for sb. to do sth.

  (difficult/easy/hard/dangerous/usefulinteresting/important…)

  It’s important for us to learn English well.

  (3)下列形容词后常跟动词不定式

  表示情感或情绪的形容词:glad,pleased,sorry,sad,afraid,thankful…

  I'm glad to see you.

  表示能力,意志或推测的形容词:ready,able,sure,certain…

  I’m sorry to hear that.

  某些现在分词和过去分词可作形容词

  the moving story 令人感动的故事

  a moved boy   一个被感动的男孩

  a frightened child 一个被吓到的孩子

  a frightening film 一个恐怖电影

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