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 栏目类别:知识点 >> 小学 >> 英语

否定句

  否定句:

  表示否定的句子。必须有否定词。

  否定句的构成形式:

  a. 谓语为be动词时,“be+not "一名学生。

  b. 谓语为实义动词而且没有情态动词和助动词时,“do/ does/ did+not"构成否定。

  例:I do not like dancing. 我不喜欢跳舞。

  He does not want to go to school. 他不想去上学。

  c. 谓语为“情态动词+实义动词”时,“情态动词+not”构成否定。

  例:You must not smoke. 你千万不要吸烟。

  I can not catch it. 我抓不住它。

  否定句在英语语法中可以分为九类:

  (1)一般否定句

  I don't know this. No news is good news.

  There is no person(smoking)/not a person/not any person(smoking)in the house.

  (2)特指否定

  He went to his office, not to see him.

  I am sorry for not coming on time.

  I don't think/believe/suppose/feel/imagine you are right.

  (3)部分否定

  All the answers are not right

  All is not gold that glitters

  I don't know all of them.

  I can't see everybody/everything.

  Both of them are not right.

  (4)全体否定

  None of my friends smoke.

  I can see nothing/nobody.

  Neither of them is right.

  Nothing can be so simple as this.

  (5)延续否定

  You didn't see him, neither/nor did I.

  You don't know, I don't know either.

  He doesn't know English, let alone/to say nothing of/not to speak of(更不用说)French.

  (6)半否定句

  We seldom/hardly/scarcely/barely hear such fine singing.

  I know little English. I saw few people.

  (7)双重否定

  You can't make something out of nothing.

  What's done cannot be undone.

  There is no sweet without sweat.

  No gain without pains.

  I can't help /keep/ laughing whenever I hear it.

  No man is so old but(that)he can learn.

  (8)排除否定

  Everyone is ready except you.

  He did nothing but play.

  But for your help, I couldn't do it.

  (9)加强否定

  I won't do it at all.

  I can't see it any more.

  He is no longer a boy.

  否定转移的形式与用法:

  一、动词的否定转移

  1.形式上否定主句的谓语,实际上是否定从句的谓语

  当动词“think”、“believe”、“suppose”、“imagine”、“expect”、“feel”的主语是第一人称,谓语动词为没有任何副词修饰的一般现在时,它们的否定式实际上是对宾语从句的否定。

  表示说话者提出一种委婉的看法或主张。如:

  I think that he will help us.——I don’t think that he will help us. 我认为它不会帮助我们。

  I believe that he is right.——I don’t believe that he is right. 我认为他不对。

  I suppose that he likes it.——I don’t suppose that he likes it. 我想他不喜欢它。

  2. 形式上否定谓语动词,实际上否定复合宾语

  当动词“think”、“believe”、“suppose”、“imagine”、“expect”、“feel”、“find”的主语是第一人称,谓语动词为没有任何副词修饰的一般现在时,它们前面的否定式实际上是对复合宾语的否定。表示说话者所提出的一种委婉的看法或主张。如:

  I think math difficult. — I don’t think math difficult. 我认为数学不难。

  I find the story interesting. — I don’t find the story interesting. 我认为这个故事没有趣。

  I expect so. —I don’t expect so. 我认为不会。

  二、动词“think”、“believe”、“suppose”、“imagine”、“expect”、“feel”在下列情况下,否定不转移:

  1.这些动词跟其他另一个动词一起做并列谓语时,否定不转移。如:

  I believe and hope he won’t do that. 我相信并且也希望他将不会那样做。

  I feel and admit that we are not foolish. 我觉得并且也承认我们并不愚蠢。

  2.用于疑问句时,否定不转移。如:

  Do you think it is not going to rain? 你认为天不会下雨吗?

  Don’t you believe that he has done a good thing? 难道你不相信他做了一件好事?

  3.用作插入语时,否定不转移。如:

  Li Lei, I think, won’t be angry with you. 我想李蕾不会生你的气。

  Tom, I suppose, won’t be against it. 我猜想汤姆不会反对。

  Mike, I believe, hasn’t seen the film. 我认为迈克没有看这场电影。

  4.动词前有其他副词修饰时,否定不转移。如:

  I really don’t think it’s necessary for us to go there now. 我的确不认为我们有必要去那儿。

  I feel strongly that he shouldn’t do such a thing. 我强烈地认为他不应该做那样的事。

  5.动词为非一般现在时或主语不是第一人称时,否定不转移。

  I thought that he wouldn’t come back soon. 我原以为他不会回来得这么快。

  She didn’t believe that he became a good boy. 她不相信它变成了一个好孩子。

  He thinks that he isn’t fit for the job. 他认为他不适合这件工作。

  He doesn’t believe that what we told him is true. 他不相信我们告诉他的事是真的。

  6.当宾语从句中含的否定为“not……at all”、“not a little”、“not a few”、“not enough”、“can’t help”等固定搭配时,否定不转移。如:

  I think that he doesn’t know it at all. 我想他对那一点也不知道。

  I suppose that it is not enough to remember the words if you want to learn the language well. 我认为如果你想把这门语言学好,那么只记单词是不够的。

  I believe that you can’t help singing our national anthem when you win the first place in the Olympic Games. 我相信当你在奥运会上获得第一名时你会情不自禁地唱起国歌来。

  7.当宾语从句中含“no”、“nothing”、“nobody”、“nowhere”、“hardly”、“seldom”、“little”、“few”等否定词或半否词时,否定不转移。如:

  I believe that nothing can make me give it up. 我想任何事情也不能使我放弃。

  I think that no one can escape if the ship sinks in the sea. 我认为如果这艘船沉入海底的话,那么谁也逃不掉。

  I suppose that he is a man of few words. 我猜想他是一个言语不多的人。

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