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 栏目类别:学习方法 >> 初中 >> 英语

中考英语定语从句解题技巧

  一、定语从句的概念和用法

  在复合句中,修饰某一名词或代词的从句叫作定语从句。

  如:A plane is a machine that/which can fly. 飞机是一种会飞的机器。

  The boy who/that broke the window is called Mike.打破窗户的那个男孩叫迈克。

  The man (whom/who/that) I met in the street is my teacher.我在街上见到的那个人是我的老师。

  I will never forget the day when (on which) I joined the League.我将永远不会忘记我入团的那一天。

  This is the house where (in which) he lived ten years ago.这就是十年前他住过的房子。

  I know the reason why (for which) she missed the train. 我知道她没赶上火车的原因。

  上面六句中的machine,boy,man,day,house和reason是定语从句所修饰的词,叫作“先行词”。定语从句放在先行词的后面。引导定语从句的关系代词有that,which,who(宾格whom,所有格whose)等和关系副词where,when,why等。关系代词和关系副词在定语从句中充当句子成分。为了更清楚地了解定语从句,现分别将关系代词和关系副词在定语从句中所起的作用列表如下:

  近几年中考英语主要考查定语从句的引导词,尤其是关系代词所占的比重较大,主要以单项选择题的形式出现。下面举几个例子帮助同学们巩固一下定语从句先行词的用法。

  例1:It’s time to say goodbye to my school.I’ll always remember the people____________have helped me.

  A. who B. what C. which D. where

  解析:先行词指人,做主语,选A。

  例2:This is the novel____________is written by Guo Jingming.

  A. who B. what C. that D. /

  解析:先行词指物,做主语,选C。

  例3:The shirt____________John bought me fits me very well.

  A. which B. what C. as D. whose

  解析:先行词指物,做宾语,可省略,选A。

  例4:That’s the man____________house was destroyed in the storm.

  A. that B. whose C. who D. which

  解析:先行词指人,做定语,选B。

  例5:Ten months has passed,but Chinese people still remember those exciting days____________they spent during the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games.

  A. that B. who C. when

  解析:先行词指时间,做宾语,可省略,选A。

  二、定语从句的主谓一致

  关系代词在定语从句中做主语时,不能省略,从句中谓语动词的人称和数要与先行词保持一致。注意当“one of +复数名词”位于关系代词前做先行词时,从句的谓语动词通常用复数形式。

  例6:This is one of the books which____________written by Lu Xun.

  A. am B. is C. was D. were

  解析:该题的先行词为books,故答案应为D。本句的意思为“这是鲁迅所写的书中的一本”。但当one前有the (only),the (very)等修饰时,从句的谓语动词要用单数。

  如:She is the only one of the girls who has learned French. 她是这些女孩中唯一一个学习法语的。

  三、只能用that引导的情况

  在下列情况下只能用that引导,不能用who或which引导:

  1.当先行词是all,none,one,any,few,little,much,everything,nothing,anything等不定代词时

  例7:Is there anything____________I can do for you?

  A. what B. which C. that D. this

  解析:句意为“有什么我可以为你做的吗?”故答案为C。

  2. 当先行词被序数词修饰时

  例8:This is the first place____________we visited last year.

  A. where B. that C. which D. what

  解析:句意为“这就是去年我们首先参观的地方”。故答案为B。

  3. 当先行词被形容词最高级修饰时

  例9:This is the best film____________I’ve ever seen.

  A. that B. which C. what D. it

  解析:句意为“这是我看过的最好的一部电影”。故答案为A。

  4. 当先行词被the very,the only,the last,any,every修饰时

  例10:This is the very book____________I am looking for.

  A. it B. which C. this D. that

  解析:句意为“这正是我在寻找的那本书”。故答案为D。

  5. 当先行词既指人又指物时

  例11: They talked about things and persons____________they remembered at school.

  A. who B. that C. whom D. which

  解析:句意为“他们谈到他们记得的在学校时的人和事”。故答案为B。

  6. 当先行词是疑问词who,what,which时

  例12:Who is the man____________is working there?

  A. that B. who C. whom D. which

  解析:句意为“在那儿工作的人是谁?”故答案为A。

  四、只能用which不能用that引导的情况

  1. 引导非限制性定语从句,修饰某物或整个句子时

  例13:He takes a walk every day,____________is good for his health.

  A. when B. it C. which D. that

  解析:句意为“他每天散步,这对他的健康有好处”。故答案为C。

  2. 当先行词在从句中做介词的宾语且介词前置时

  例14:The hotel at____________we stayed was very small.

  A. where B. what C. that D. which

  解析:句意为“我们住的旅店很小”。故答案为D。

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