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 栏目类别:学习方法 >> 初中 >> 英语

中考主谓一致考点分析

  纵观近年来全国各地中考英语试题,我们可以发现中考对主谓一致的考查主要集中在以下几个方面:

  一、根据主语的单复数和可数性考查主谓一致

  如果用作主语的名词或代词是单数,则谓语动词用单数;如果用作主语的名词或代词是复数,则谓语动词用复数;如果用作主语的名词是不可数名词,则谓语动词用单数。

  【真题链接1】(2015年重庆B卷) —How many people are there in your group?

  —Four. Three boys ______ in our group.

  A. is B. are

  C. were D. was

  【解析】选B。句子主语Three boys为复数名词,故谓语动词要用复数;根据语境可知,答句谓语要用一般现在时,故空格处应填are。

  【真题链接2】(2015年郴州卷) —What would you like, coffee or tea?

  —Either ______ OK. I dont mind.

  A. is B. are

  C. was

  【解析】选A。either用作代词,意为“两者中的任何一个”,在句中做主语时,谓语动词用单数;根据语境可知,空格处要用一般现在时,故填is。

  【真题链接3】(2015年黄石卷) The writer and speaker ______ a speech on Chinese culture in the hall now.

  A. are giving B. is giving

  C. will give D. has given

  【解析】选B。the writer and speaker意为“这位作家兼演说家”,指的是同一个人,由时间状语now可知,该句用现在进行时态,故空格处应填is giving。

  【真题链接4】(2011年德阳卷) —Physics ______ more difficult than Chinese, do you think so?

  —Yes, I think so.

  A. is B. are

  C. have D. has

  【解析】选A。句子主语Physics意为“物理”,在这里指一门学科。虽然主语形式上是复数,但表示的是单数意义,故谓语动词用单数;再根据句意可知,空格处应用系动词,故填is。

  二、考查“名词+介词短语”用作主语时的主谓一致

  介词短语一般不用作主语,因此,当“名词+介词短语”处于主语位置时,其后的谓语动词只与其中的名词有关而与介词短语无关。如a teacher with his students做主语时,谓语动词只与a teacher保持一致,而与with his students无关。

  【真题链接1】(2015年泰安卷) Everybody except Mike and Linda ______ there when the meeting began.

  A. is B. are

  C. was D. were

  【解析】选C。句子的真正主语是Everybody,而不是except Mike and Linda,谓语动词用单数形式;根据when引导的时间状语从句的时态可知,该句用一般过去时。

  【真题链接2】(2015年安顺卷) Mary with her parents often ______ for a walk in the park after supper.

  A. go B. is going

  C. are going D. goes

  【解析】选D。句子主语是Mary,为单数,故可排除A、B两项;由频度副词often可知,该句用一般现在时。

  【真题链接3】(2015年攀枝花卷) The girl, as well as her parents, ______ to the park, and all of them ______ very happy.

  A. go; are B. goes; feels

  C. went; are D. goes; feel

  【解析】选D。这是一个由and连接的并列句,根据语境,前后分句均用一般现在时。其中,第一个分句的主语是The girl,为单数,故谓语动词用第三人称单数形式goes;第二个分句的主语是all of them,为复数,故谓语动词用复数形式feel。

  三、考查整体中的部分做主语时的主谓一致

  若一个短语表示的是整体中的部分,当用作主语时,其后的谓语只与其中的“部分”保持一致,而与“整体”无关。如one of the boys做主语时,谓语动词与one有关,而与the boys无关。

  【真题链接1】(2011年衢州卷) One of my friends ______ moved to America. I miss her so much.

  A. has B. have

  C. is D. are

  【解析】选A。处于主语位置的one of my friends属于表示“整体中的部分”的短语,其后谓语动词只与表示“部分”的one保持一致,而与表示“整体”的my friends无关,故可排除B、D两项;再根据句意,应该是指“已经去了美国”,而不是“被移到了美国”,故用现在完成时。

  【真题链接2】(2012年南通卷) Each of the club members ______ ready to help those who were in trouble.

  A. is B. are

  C. was D. were

  【解析】选C。句子谓语与Each保持一致,而与the club members无关,故可排除B、D两项;再根据其后定语从句的时态可知,句子谈论的是过去情况,故用一般过去时。

  四、考查倒装句中的主谓一致

  对倒装句而言,位于句首主语位置的成分并非是句子的主语,此时需根据句子意思和句式特点找出句子真正的主语,从而确定句子谓语动词的形式。

  【真题链接】(2012年烟台卷) Between the two hills ______ a deep river.

  A. are B. have

  C. has D. is

  【解析】选D。根据英语语法,介词短语不用作句子主语,所以当介词短语位于主语位置时,应考虑此句是否是倒装句。本句即属倒装句,真正的主语是a deep river,故空格处应填is。

  五、考查并列成分做主语时的主谓一致

  对于并列成分做主语的主谓一致问题,同学们应注意以下两类结构:

  1. 当and和both ... and ...连接的两个并列成分做主语时,谓语动词通常用复数。

  2. 当either ... or ..., neither ... nor ..., not only ... but also ... 连接的两个并列成分做主语时,谓语动词通常与其最靠近的主语保持一致。

  【真题链接1】(2012年广东卷) —Both Li Lei and Han Meimei ______ fond of the TV program “A Bite of China”.

  —I am also deeply moved by its stories!

  A. is B. am

  C. was D. are

  【解析】选D。both ... and ... 连接两个并列成分做主语时,谓语动词要用复数,故可排除A、B和C三项。

  【真题链接2】(2015年安顺卷) —What would you like to have for supper?

  —Either noodles or rice ______ OK. I dont mind.

  A. are B. were

  C. is D. was

  【解析】选C。either ... or ... 连接并列成分做主语时,其后的谓语动词与or后的主语保持一致,故可排除A、B两项;根据问句使用的是一般现在时可知,答句也应用一般现在时。

  【真题链接3】(2015年呼和浩特卷) Neither the headmaster nor the teachers ______ take a vacation next week.

  A. were going toB. is going to

  C. was going to D. are going to

  【解析】选D。当neither ... nor ... 连接并列成分做主语时,其后谓语与nor后的主语保持一致,故可排除B、C两项;根据句中时间状语next week可知,该句谓语动词用一般将来时。

  【真题链接4】(2011年绥化卷) This is my twin sister, Lucy. Not only she but also I ______ good at drawing.

  A. is B. am

  C. are D. were

  【解析】选B。当not only ... but also ... 连接两个并列成分做主语时,其后谓语动词与but also后的主语I保持一致,故谓语动词用am。

  六、考查a number of ... 和the number of ... 做主语时的主谓一致

  a number of ... 意为“许多、若干”,若用作主语,其后的谓语动词用复数;the number of ... 意为“……的数量”,若用作主语,其后的谓语动词用单数。

  【真题链接1】(2015年益阳卷) —How many women doctors are there in your hospital?

  —______ them ______ over twenty.

  A. A number of; are

  B. The number of; are

  C. The number of; is

  【解析】选C。句意为:——你们医院有多少名医生?——20多名。the number of ...意为“……的数量”,做主语时谓语动词用单数形式。

  【真题链接2】(2015年南充卷) The number of the volunteers ______ 100 now. And a small number of them ______ already gone to the workplace.

  A. is; have B. are; have

  C. is; are D. is; has

  【解析】选A。the number of ... 做主语时,其后的谓语动词用单数,故第一空填is;a number of做主语时,其后的谓语动词用复数,又因为该句是现在完成时,故第二空填have。

  七、考查there be句式中的主谓一致

  在there be句式中,动词be不仅有时态上的变化,而且有单复数的变化。确定其时态的方法是看句子意思和句中的时间状语或其他相关时态;确定其单复数的方法是看与动词be最靠近的名词是单数还是复数。

  【真题链接1】(2015年绥化卷) There ______ little milk in the fridge. Lets go and buy some.

  A. has B. is

  C. are

  【解析】选B。there be句式中的be动词与其后所接的名词保持一致,句中milk是不可数名词,故谓语动词用is。

  【真题链接2】(2015年广东卷) —______ there any living things on other planets?

  —I have no idea. Maybe we can know more about that in the future.

  A. Is B. Are

  C. Has D. Have

  【解析】选B。我们不难确定本题考查的是there be句式,可先排除C、D两项;句中living things是复数可数名词,故谓语动词用are。

  【真题链接3】(2015年雅安卷) There ______ a bag and some books on the desk just now.

  A. are B. is

  C. were D. was

  【解析】选D。there be句式中be的单复数应遵循“就近原则”,由邻近主语a bag可先排除A、C两项;根据句中时间状语just now可知,该句用一般过去时,故空白处只能填was。

  【真题链接4】(2015年东营卷) Police: Whats in your wallet?

  Owner: There ______ some money and two tickets for todays e-sports competition.

  A. is B. was

  C. are D. were

  【解析】选A。邻近主语money为不可数名词,可先排除C、D两项;根据上下句语境可知,答句应用一般现在时,故空白处只能填is。

  八、考查表示“一段时间”等的名词或短语做主语时的主谓一致

  当一段时间(如ten years)、一段距离(如five hundred miles)、一笔钱(如100 dollars)等用作主语时,常将其视为一个整体,其后的谓语动词用单数。

  【真题链接1】(2015年绵阳卷) For kids of this age, two hours of sitting in a classroom ______ too long.

  A. is B. are

  C. was D. were

  【解析】选A。主语two hours意为“两个小时”,通常将其视为一个整体,谓语动词用单数形式;该句谈论的是一种事实,故选A。

  【真题链接2】(2011年广安卷) —How much is the pair of shoes?

  —Twenty dollars ______ enough.

  A. is B. are

  C. am D. have

  【解析】选A。主语Twenty dollars在此应看成一个整体,表示单数概念,故谓语动词用is。

  九、考查非谓语动词做主语时的主谓一致

  当非谓语动词做句子的主语时,谓语动词原则上用单数。同学们做题时要注意,若非谓语动词带有自己的宾语,且宾语为复数形式,此时不要受此影响而误用复数谓语。

  【真题链接】(2015年哈尔滨卷) Doing eye exercises ______ one of the useful ways to protect our eyes.

  A. is B. are

  C. were

  【解析】选A。句子主语Doing eye exercises为动名词短语,故谓语动词用单数形式。切忌受Doing的宾语eye exercises的影响而误用复数谓语。

  强化练习:

  一、根据句意,从括号中选择合适的单词完成句子。

  1. Nobody except Ann and Julie ______ (know / knows) the secret.

  2. My friend and classmate Jane ______ (like / likes) collecting stamps very much.

  3. Either Tom or I ______ (are / am) staying at home today.

  4. Each of the guests ______ (bring / brings) a favorite dish to share with others.

  5. If you walk there, ten kilometers ______ (is / are) a long distance.

  6. His glasses ______ (was / were) broken, so he couldnt see well.

  7. The number of workers in the factory ______ (is / are) increasing.

  8. 89% of smokers ______ (is / are) men.

  9. Most of my time ______ (was / were) spent in reading books.

  10. The rich ______ (is / are) not always happy.

  二、从A、B、C、D四个选项中,选出可以填入空白处的最佳选项。

  1. —It isnt good to drive eight hours to get there!

  —I agree. Eight hours ______ really a very long time.

  A. has B. is

  C. were D. am

  2. Mary, as well as the twin sisters, ______ in China for five years.

  A. are B. is

  C. have been D. has been

  3. Either Tom or Lily ______ going to the party next week. One of them must stay at home.

  A. are B. am

  C. is D. being

  4. I hear one third of the books in Wuhu Library ______ new. Lets borrow some.

  A. is B. are

  C. was D. were

  5. To get on well with others ______ import-ant.

  A. am B. are

  C. is D. were

  6. —What ______ the number of students in your school?

  —About two thousands. A number of them ______ from the USA.

  A. is; is B. are; are

  C. are; is D. is; are

  7. Now each student ______ an English-Chinese dictionary.

  A. has B. have

  C. had D. having

  8. This is my twin sister Lucy. Both she and I ______ good at drawing.

  A. am B. is

  C. are D. be

  9. Everybody except Tom and Jenny ______ playing basketball.

  A. like B. likes

  C. liked D. liking

  10. Half of the class ______ most of the work. Some of the work ______ really difficult.

  A. have done; isB. has done; are

  C. has done; is D. have done; are

  11. Two thirds of the workers in this factory ______ the uniforms.

  A. is wearing B. are wearing

  C. was worn D. were worn

  12. Bob together with his parents often ______ to the library.

  A. go B. goes

  C. gone D. going

  13. Either Peter or his brother usually ______ reading in his free time.

  A. enjoys B. enjoy

  C. is D. are

  14. The doctor and professor ______ from Beijing. He is friendly to us.

  A. is B. are

  C. has D. have

  15. The bad news ______ Jack very sad.

  A. make B. makes

  C. are making D. is made

  16. Look! The police ______ running after that thief.

  A. is B. are

  C. was D. were

  17. —My shoes ______ worn out. Can you buy me a new pair?

  —Look! There ______ a pair of new shoes on your bed. I bought it for you.

  A. is; are B. are; is

  C. is; is D. are; are

  18. I love hiking. You know, hiking in the mountains ______ good for us.

  A. were B. are

  C. is D. being

  19. —Wang Guozhen is a famous poet.

  —I agree. Everybody in my class ______ his poems.

  A. enjoy B. didnt enjoy

  C. enjoys D. enjoying

  20. —______ your family a big one?

  —Yes, and my family ______ all workers.

  A. Is; are B. Are; are

  C. Is; is D. Are; is

  Key:

  一、1. knows 2. likes 3. am 4. brings 5. is 6. were 7. is 8. are 9. was 10. are

  二、1~5 BDCBC 6~10 DACBA

  11~15 BBAAB 16~20 BBCCA

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