您好,欢迎来到答案网! 请  登录  |  免费注册   收藏本站Ctrl+D    
答案网
  

网站首页 | 学习方法首页 | 语文学习方法 | 数学学习方法 | 英语学习方法 | 历史学习方法 | 政治学习方法 | 物理学习方法 | 化学学习方法 | 生物学习方法 | 地理学习方法
 栏目类别:学习方法 >> 初中 >> 英语

中考英语任务型阅读解题指导

  一、信息匹配型

  信息匹配题的主要特点是将主题类似的信息放在一起,要求学生迅速甄别不同点,并对特定细节进行筛选、类比和综合。这类题目既考查学生的快速阅读能力,又考查学生提取信息、处理信息、综合运用英语的能力。

  技巧点拨

  (1)仔细阅读试题选项,正确理解每个选项的意思。对于谈论相似主题的选项,需区别内容的相同点和不同点,并牢记体现不同点的关键词语。

  (2)快速浏览短文,依靠标题迅速抓住每篇短文的主题。浏览过程中若发现答题所需的具体信息,在词语或句子下面画线并标上所答的题号,以便初步敲定答案。对那些暂时无法确定答案的题目,可暂且放置一边,并在第二次阅读时予以解决。

  (3)第二次阅读短文时必须有针对性,主要为了解决两个问题:一是仔细检查已初步认定的答案与单句是否匹配;二是找到第一遍浏览时尚未确定的信息。

  (4)为确保答案的准确性,再次将选项跟短文的内容进行比较,检查有无谬误或疏漏之处。

  中考实例

  (2015年佛山卷)阅读下面5组语言材料,从A到F选项中找出与它们相对应的标题。[51 52 53][55 54 ][The bee gets sweet juice from the flowers with its mouth, which is shaped liked a tube (吸管). Bees fly hundreds of times between flowers and their honeycombs (蜂巢).][A. Where to store honey B. How to get flower juiceC. Ready to eat

  D. How to collect honey E. Where to keep bees F. Special clothes to wear][In the country, some bees make their homes in places like the trunk of a tree. Bees make honeycombs with wax (蜡) from their own bodies. The space in the honeycomb is where the honey is stored.][In gardens or farms, beekeepers keep bees in behives (蜂箱) like this one so they can collect honey. About fifty thousand bees live in one beehive.][Honey is used to make lots of different food. It is delicious when it is spread onto bread.][The beekeeper collects the honey from the beehive. He takes out the honeycomb which is full of honey. He wears special clothes so that he doesnt get bitten.]

  【主旨大意】

  本文是一篇说明文。文章介绍了蜜蜂如何采蜜以及养蜂人如何收集蜂蜜。

  【参考答案】

  51. B。本段大意:蜜蜂用像吸管一样的嘴采花蜜,在花与蜂巢之间飞行数百次。阅读所给标题可知,B项主题“如何获取花蜜”能与本段大意匹配。故选B。

  52. A。本段大意:在乡村,一些蜜蜂在树杈处筑巢,而蜂巢就是储存蜂蜜的地方。阅读所给标题可知,A项主题“在什么地方储存蜂蜜”能与本段大意匹配。故选A。

  53. E。本段大意:在花园或农场,养蜂人用蜂箱养蜂以便收集蜂蜜,一个蜂箱大约容纳5万只蜜蜂。阅读所给标题可知,E项“在哪里养蜂”能与本段大意匹配。故选E。

  54. D。本段大意:养蜂人从蜂箱里收集蜂蜜。他拿出装满蜂蜜的蜂巢,并穿着特殊的衣服以便不被蜜蜂蜇到。阅读所给标题可知,D项“如何收集蜂蜜”能与本段大意匹配,而F项“穿特殊衣服”显然不能全面总结本段内容。故选D而排除F。

  55. C。本段大意:蜂蜜可用来做许多不同的食物,在面包上放一点蜂蜜会使其非常可口。阅读所给标题可知,C项“准备吃蜂蜜”能与本段大意匹配。故选C。

  二、恢复原文型

  这种题型包括两部分:主干部分和选项部分。主干部分是一篇总长度为200至300词的文章,其中有5处空白,空白的位置可能在段首、段落中间、段末,但不会是文章的第一句,一般情况下也不会是最后一句。选项部分包括5至7段文字,每段可能是一个句子,或者两三个短句,也可能是完整的段落。题目通常要求学生根据文章内容从这5或7个选项中选出能分别放进文章中5个空白处的选项。

  该题型要求同学们从整体上把握文章的逻辑结构,理解句子之间、段落之间的关系,对诸如连贯性、一致性等语段特征有较强的意识并能够熟练地把握,同时要具备运用语法知识分析、理解长难句的能力。

  技巧点拨

  (1)先快速阅读全文,力求对文章内容有大致了解,然后浏览所给选项。阅读时注意首段和要点词句,通过文章的首段和要点词句判断文章的大概意思。

  (2)重点阅读各个空白处附近的句子,分析选项与前后内容的逻辑关系,然后再圈定关键的线索词(包括名词、动词、连词、代词等),最后从选项中寻找在内容和词语上都衔接合理的选项,确定答案。

  (3)对于一些拿不准或者做不出的题目可先放过,继续往下读。先做容易的并且非常确定的题目,以免浪费过多的时间,也可以避免因做错一道题而导致更多的错误。

  (4)最后将所选句子放到文章中,通读全文,检查答案是否与文章主题一致,从而判断所选答案的正确性。检查过程非常重要,切不可忽视。

  中考实例

  (2015年河南卷)Why is setting goals (目标) important? Because goals can help you do and experience everything you want in life. Instead of just letting life happen to you, goals allow you to make your life happen.

  Successful people in life imagine how their life should be and set lots of goals. 61 Its like having a sign to show you where you want to go. Think of it this way. There are two drivers. One has a place to go to clearly in mind which can be found on a map. He can drive straight there surely without any wasted time. The other driver has no goal, or a map. 62 But he drives aimlessly (漫无目的地) around, never getting anywhere, just using up oil. Which driver do you want to be?

  63 They decide what they want in life and then get there by setting goals and making plans. Unsuccessful people usually just let life happen by accident. Goals arent difficult to set and they arent difficult to reach. 64 You are the one who must decide what to achieve and in what direction to aim your life.

  Research tells us that when we write a goal down we are more likely to achieve it. 65 They are harder to forget. Also when you write your goals in your own way, you are able to make yourself realize situations that will bring you nearer to your goal.

  根据材料内容,从下面五个选项中选出能填入文中空缺处的最佳选项, 使短文意思通顺、内容完整。

  A. Written goals can be reviewed usually.

  B. He starts off at the same time from the same place.

  C. Its up to you to find out what your goals really are.

  D. By setting goals you are taking control of your life.

  E. Winners in life set goals and follow through on them.

  【参考答案】

  61. D。根据下句“它就像一个标志,指示你要去哪里”分析:既然目标能让你有了前行的方向,那么设立了目标,你也就能掌控自己了。在备选项中,只有D符合语境。

  62. B。上文是将“有明确目标的司机”与“没有目标的司机”相比较。由此分析:既然是比较他们的不同,那么两位司机应在同一地点、同一时间出发,才能突出有目标的人更能掌控自己。故选B。

  63. E。比照下文第三句“不成功人士”的信息可知,本句应谈论的是成功人士能够设定生活目标并制定计划去实现这个目标。在备选项中,只有E符合语境。

  64. C。根据下句“You are the one who must decide what to achieve and in what direction to aim your life.”可推知,你要找到真正的目标还得靠自己。在备选项中,只有C符合题意。

  65. A。根据上句“写下目标更容易实现目标”及下句“他们很难忘记”可推知,本句应谈到“写下目标”。在备选项中,只有A谈到“写目标”。故选A。

  三、阅读填表型

  这类阅读题目中有一个图表或一个表格,将其中一些信息内容留出空格,要求学生根据文章填空。所填的内容一般分如下几类:(1)时间、事件及人物;(2)数字及排位;(3)物体的构成及功能;(4)流程图;(5)抽象名词。

  技巧点拨

  (1)准确查找法。

  表格中有些题目在短文中有明确的答案,这就需要我们将原文中与题目意思相同或相近的句子找出来,加以对照,从而填上所缺的信息。

  (2)语法转换法。

  许多同学抱怨,虽在阅读材料中找到相关的句子,但表格中填上的答案是错误的。这是因为有些题目设计的语境发生变化而导致语法上必须做相应的改变,即在人称、时态、名词单复数、基数词与序数词等方面进行转换。

  (3)数据推算法。

  此类题目要求我们就文章提供的数据,以及数据与文章中其他信息的关系进行简单的计算和推断。在做此类题目时应注意:要抓住并正确理解与数据有关的信息含义;弄清众多信息中哪些是有用信息,哪些是干扰信息;不要孤立看待数字信息,而是要抓住一些关键用语的含义。

  (4)归纳总结法。

  有些题目在文章中难以找到答案,需要学生查找分析相关信息并将其进行对比、归纳、总结后再进行填词。做此类题目必须具备一定的语言归纳能力。

  注意:

  ◇注意题目要求中是否有词数限制。

  ◇绝大部分的答案是原文原词,而且是原文中连续出现的几个词。

  ◇要注意顺序性,即题目的顺序和原文的顺序基本一致。

  ◇题目设置比较简单,注意快速答题。

  中考实例

  (2015年丽水卷)阅读下面的短文,在思维导图中填入恰当的内容完成阅读摘记。

  Did you have any interesting dreams last night? Do you know everyone dreams? But not everyone remembers their dreams. A person can usually have up to seven dreams a night, and each dream usually lasts from 10 to 40 minutes.

  Why do we dream? Scientists believe that we dream to remember because dreams come from our memories and they tell us a lot about ourselves. They also help us learn from the past and even help us solve problems.

  Different dreams mean differently to people. For example, if you dream about flying, you are probably quite happy. This is a good time in your life. You may feel that other people see you as a leader. And when you dream that you didnt study for a test, it usually means you are worried about an important thing coming in your life.

  【参考答案】

  46. remember。根据第一段第二句和第三句“Do you know everyone dreams? But not everyone remembers their dreams.”可知,每个人都会做梦,但是并不是每个人都能记住他们做过的梦。动词remember意为“记住,想起来”。

  47. seven / 7。根据第一段第四句“A person can usually have up to seven dreams a night ...”可知,一个人一晚上通常最多能做七个梦。

  48. why / we / reason(s) of。通读原文第二段可知,我们做过的梦都是来自于我们白天的记忆。由此可判断,回忆起过去以及帮助我们解决问题都是我们做梦的原因。故答案应该为:why 或 (the) reasons of (dream)。填we (dream) 也能说得过去。

  49. dreams。联系原文最后一段可知,“梦到飞翔”以及“没有为考试而刻苦学习”这两个梦境都是做过的梦的具体例子,然后下文对这两个梦境的寓意进行简要分析。故答案为dreams。

  50. happy。根据最后一段第二句“... if you dream about flying, you are probably quite happy.”可知,如果你梦到飞翔,你可能心情非常好。

  四、按要求答题型

  按要求答题是英语任务型阅读的综合形式,其设题形式是把各种任务形式组合搭配,是对阅读信息的二次加工的过程。此类题目通常要求学生归纳概括文中要点,整合零散信息,使之条理化、明朗化、简单化和形象化。

  近年来,这种题型设计包含以下几种形式:回答问题;翻译句子;句型转换;词义猜测;拟订标题;填写句子等。这种阅读题型主要考查下列三个方面的能力:

  ①捕捉信息能力(属基础题);

  ②组织信息能力(属活用题);

  ③综合概括信息能力(属概括题)。

  技巧点拨

  (1)明确任务。

  由于题目要求形式多样,在同一篇阅读材料中会要求完成不同的任务,因此同学们在解题前要先明确任务,做到心中有数。

  (2)对应、紧扣原文。

  在原文中找出与题干相对应的信息,这样就可以快速准确地抓住有效信息,确保答题的准确性。

  (3)注意读写结合。

  任务型阅读不仅考查学生阅读理解层面的能力,更加注重考查学生“写”的能力。若是写单词,则要注意拼写的正确性,如词形、词性有无变化,字母是否需要大写等;若要完成短语或句子成分,则需谨慎对待,我们应依据所给题干分析要完成的是什么句子成分,需用什么样的表达方式,切不可直接引用文中信息。

  (4)认真检查。

  完成任务后要重新审视材料,检查所填的答案是否符合要求,同时语言要精练、准确。

  要特别注意以下问题:

  ◇词义猜测

  根据构词法猜测词义,利用表示下定义的句子、重述法猜测词义,利用反义词、近义词线索猜测词义,利用上下文猜测生词,还可根据经验、常识判断生词意思以及词与词之间的相互联系、信息之间的相关性、事物发展的必然逻辑联系等。另外,还可利用例句猜测词义。

  ◇拟订标题

  拟订文章标题要考虑标题对文章的概括性或覆盖面,标题也要具备针对性、醒目性。一般说来,拟定标题是以话题为核心,用简练的关键词组成短语或短句。

  ◇句型转换

  句型转换题以考查学生对复合句的掌握程度为主,重点考查一些典型句子结构,如状语从句、定语从句、被动语态以及一个比较普通的简单句(但会涉及动词时态)等。答题时需注意名词单复数、动词时态、形容词或副词的比较等级等方面的书写规范。

  中考实例

  (2015年青岛卷)阅读下面短文,按要求完成各项任务。

  Where is the true home of the hamburger?

  The kind of beef we see in hamburgers, minced (切碎的) beef, was possibly invented by Mongolians over 800 years ago. But who first put the beef in between pieces of bread and called it a hamburger? Three different cities in the United States all say that they were the first to invent Americas favorite food.

  Some people say that Fletcher Davis, from Athens, invented hamburgers. “Old Dave”, as people called him, was selling minced beef sandwiches in his lunch bar as early as the 1880s. Some years later, they say that a group of Germans called ①his sandwich a “hamburger” because people from the German city of Hamburg ate this kind of beef.

  Other people believe that the hamburger came from a different American city. ②Coincidentally, its name was also Hamburg. The Menches brothers were selling pork sandwiches at a fair in 1885, but when there was no more pork, they used minced beef and gave it a new name, the “hamburger”.

  The third possible inventor of the hamburger was Charlie Nagreen, also known as “Hamburger Charlie”, from Seymour. He said that in 1885 he invented the worlds first hamburgers. Seymour now celebrates the invention of the hamburger every year. In 1989, it was the home of the worlds largest ever burger—over 2,500 kg!

  任务一 请根据短文内容,完成句子。每空一词。

  1. There are three American cities in this passage. They are Athens, ______ and ______.

  2. When there was no more ______ at the 1885 fair, the Menches brothers used minced beef ______.

  任务二 请根椐短文内容,用英语表达①处画线单词his所指代的内容。______

  任务三 请根据短文内容,猜测画线单词Coincidentally的中文意思。将其字母代号填写在答题卡上。______

  A. 幸运地 B. 碰巧地 C. 相反地

  任务四 请根据短文内容,回答问题。

  How often is the invention of the hamburger celebrated in Seymour?

  ________________________________.

  任务五 请从文中找出与“Mongolians possibly invented minced beef a longtime ago.”意思相近的句子。

  ________________________________.

  任务六 请用英语简要概括出本文的主旨大意,不超过10个词。

  Its mainly about _____________________ _________________________________.

  【参考答案】

  任务一:1. Hamburg;Seymour。题干意为:这篇短文提到三个城市,他们分别是Athens, ______ 和______。由第三段开头“Other people believe that the hamburger came from a different American city. ②Coincidentally, its name was also Hamburg.”可知,第二个城市的名称是Hamburg;由第四段开头“The third possible inventor of the hamburger was Charlie Nagreen, also known as ‘Hamburger Charlie, from Seymour.”可知,第三个城市是Seymour。

  2. pork; instead。题干意为:在1885年,当没有更多的猪肉时,曼彻斯兄弟只有用切碎的牛肉代替。由第三段末句“... but when there was no more pork, they used minced beef and gave it a new name, the ‘hamburger’.”可知答案。

  任务二:Fletcher Davis (s) / Old Daves / Daviss / Fletchers。由第二段开头“Some people say that Fletcher Davis, from Athens, invented hamburgers. ‘Old Dave’, as people called him ...”可知,此人叫Fletcher Davis,被人们称为Old Dave。

  任务三:B。猜测词义题。由下文可知,这一城市也叫Hamburg,和hamburger差不多,是一种巧合。因此选B。

  任务四:Every year / Once a year。题干意为:在Seymour,汉堡的发明多久要被庆祝一次?由最后一段“Seymour now celebrates the invention of the hamburger every year.”一句可知,每年要庆祝一次。故填Every year / Once a year。

  任务五:The kind of beef we see in hamburgers, minced beef, was possibly invented by Mongolians over 800 years ago。本句意为“蒙古人可能在很久之前就发明了碎牛肉(汉堡)”。本句与文章开头第一句意思相近。

  任务六:the (true) home of hamburgers / who invented hamburgers / the invention of the hamburger / who is the real inventor of the hamburger / who was the possible inventor of the hamburger。本文主要介绍汉堡的发源地。

  五、完成句子型

  这类题目的设题形式为:每个题目都是一个陈述句,但留有一个或两个空格,要求根据短文内容填空。目前考试中,大部分的题目要求中没有词数限制,只有一小部分题目有词数限制。解答这类试题一定要严格按照题目要求,需要注意的是:答案的单词数量一般不会超过四个。这类题目的解题方法和短问答类似,但比短问答要难。难点在于题目中的关键词和原文中的相关内容对应并不明显。

  技巧点拨

  完成句子主要考查学生两个方面的能力:一是阅读能力;二是掌握语法知识的能力。解题时要注意以下几点:

  (1)找出题目中的关键词,最好先定位到原文中的某一个段落。

  将题目中的关键词与原文各段落的小标题或每段话的第一句相对照。有些题目能先定位到原文中的一个段落,这必然加快解题速度,并提高准确率。但并非每个题目都能准确定位。

  (2)快速阅读该段落,根据题目中的其他关键词确定正确答案。

  将答案定位在一个段落后,答案在该段落中的具体位置是未知的。所以,需要从头到尾仔细阅读该段落,找出题目中的关键词的对应词。仔细阅读对应词所在的句子,确定正确答案。

  (3)要注意顺序性,即题目的顺序和原文的顺序基本一致。

  这类题目的设题有顺序性。第二题的答案应在第一题的答案之后。这个规律也有助于确定答案的位置。

  (4)所填答案必须语法正确。

  因为是填空,所以所填答案必须符合语法规则。

  (5)所填答案必须在意义上与原文相符。

  有些答案在文章中有对应词,而有些答案来自原文原词,而且是原文中连续的几个词。

  (6)答案词数不宜很多,绝大部分是动词短语或句子。

  所填答案绝大部分是动词短语对应原文相应句子的宾语。也有一些题目的答案是名词短语、形容词短语、副词短语或句子。

  中考实例

  (2015年天津卷)阅读下面短文,根据短文内容完成句子。

  Do some colors make you feel calm while others give you energy? Scientists have studied the connection between color and mood (心情) for a long time. Many believe that color can influence our moods.

  Warm, bright colors such as yellow and red are positive colors. They can give people a pleasant feeling. Cool colors such as blue, purple, and green are relaxing colors. They help people experience calm feelings.

  Many public places are decorated (装饰) with certain colors in order to create certain moods. Orange makes people feel hungry, and many restaurants are painted in this color.

  People use color in their homes to create moods as well. Blue is a peaceful color. It helps you rest, so it is a very good color for a bedroom.

  Colors can create bad moods, too. Some types of blue make people feel sad. Red can make people feel angry.

  What is your mood right now? Now look at the color of the walls round you. Does it match your mood?

  76. Cool colors are relaxing colors and they help people experience ______.

  77. Orange makes people ______, and many restaurants are painted this color.

  78. People use color in their homes to ______ as well.

  79. Some types of ______ make people feel sad.

  80. This passage mainly tells us how color ______.

  【参考答案】

  76. calm feelings。根据第二段的最后两句话可以得出此答案。

  77. feel hungry。根据第三段的第二句可以得出此答案。

  78. create moods。根据第四段中的“People use color in their homes to create moods as well.”可以得出此答案。

  79. blue。根据第五段中的“Some types of blue make people feel sad.”可以得出此答案。

  80. influences our moods / can influence our moods。根据第一段最后一句可以得出此答案。

  六、翻译句子型

  将短文中画线句子译成汉语或英语的题目,主要考查学生准确理解概念或结构较复杂的英语材料的能力。该类题目要求学生阅读一篇约200词的文章,并将其中五个画线部分译成汉语或者英语,要求译文准确、完整、通顺。此类阅读题主要考查学生的词汇量、语法知识、阅读能力和语言表达的综合运用能力,尤其注重考查学生通过上下文理解词和短语含义的能力。

  技巧点拨

  (1)略读全文,从整体上把握整篇文章的内容,并理解画线部分与文章其他部分之间的语法及逻辑关系。

  (2)理解画线句子的意义,不仅要弄清句子表面的意义,还要理解其在特定的语言环境中的意义。也要特别注意句子中的代词和所指代的意义。另外,还要注意句子中包含的短语和固定结构,因为这往往也是考点。

  (3)综合运用各种翻译方法将文中的原意忠实地表达出来。这一点对语言功底的要求比较高,同学们在具体操作过程中要注意英汉两种语言的差异,对于简单一些的句子能直译就直译,而对于一些难度较大的句子,我们尽量采用直译和意译相结合的方法。总之,应当尽量使译文得体。

  (4)检查核对三个方面的内容:一是检查译文是否忠实于原文,通过把译文和原文对照比较往往能发现问题;二是检查译文本身是否通顺或表达清楚;三是检查译文是否有笔误,是否有漏译词,是否有代词未转译,时态是否未译出,数字、日期是否译错,标点符号是否用错等。

  中考实例

  (2015年株洲卷)阅读下面的短文,然后将画线部分的句子翻译成汉语或英语。

  You may know a lot about smart phones. But what about smart cities?

  Imagine living your life like this: When you wake up in the morning, you say “open the window” to a computer and it opens the window. (66) 阳光照耀,鸟儿歌唱。Then you finish breakfast and sit in front of your desk and begin to have classes through the Internet. (67) With the help of building a smart city, this may become true one day.

  A smart city uses digital technologies (数字科技) such as the Internet to improve city planning, save resources and make our lives easier. For example, people live in smart cities, where there is Internet almost everywhere. (68) They can do many things at home such as booking train tickets and paying water bills. What a beautiful life it is!

  (69) Now China is making some cities smarter. For example, Guiyang is going to build free Wi-Fi in the whole city. Tianjin plans to start a smart city program to help traffic problems. (70) 株洲正在创建智慧城市,因此每个人都应该为创建智慧城市发挥作用。

  【参考答案】

  66. The sunshine is shining and the birds are singing.

  67. 将来某一天,这将随着智慧城市的建设而变成现实。

  68. 他们能够在家做很多事情,如订火车票和交水费等。

  69. 现在,中国正使一些城市智能化。

  70. Zhuzhou is creating a smart city, so everyone should play a role in creating a smart city.

 小学英语学习方法与技巧
 初中英语学习方法与技巧
 高中英语学习方法与技巧
CopyRight @ 2007-2016   学习方法 www.zqnf.com    All Rights Reserved