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 栏目类别:学习方法 >> 初中 >> 英语

直接引语转换为间接引语的技巧

  引述某人的话一般采用两种形式:一种是直接引语,即原封不动地引用原话,把它放在引号内;另一种是间接引语,即用自己的话加以转述,被转述的内容不放在引号内。下面我们一起来学习几种直接引语转换为间接引语的技巧。

  一、人称的转换

  1. 直接引语中的第一人称,一般转换为第三人称

  如:He said,“I am very sorry.”→He said that he was very sorry.

  2. 直接引语中的第二人称,如果原话是针对转述人说的,应转换为第一人称

  如:“You should be more careful next time.”my father told me.→ My father told me that I should be more careful the next time.

  3. 直接引语中的第二人称,如果原话是针对第三人称说的,要转换成第三人称

  如:She said to her son, “I’ll check your homework tonight.”→ She said to her son that she would check his homework that night.

  4. 人称的转换包括人称代词、物主代词和名词性物主代词等

  如:He asked me,“Will you go to the station with me to meet a friend of mine this afternoon?”→He asked me whether I would go to the station with him to meet a friend of his that afternoon.

  5. 口诀巧记人称变化

  口诀:“一主、二宾、三不变”。

  (1)“一主”指当直接引语中的第一人称变为间接引语时,要和主句中的主语在人称上保持一致。

  如:He said,“I am forty.”→ He said that he was forty.

  (2)“二宾”指当直接引语中的第二人称变为间接引语时,要和主句中的间接宾语保持人称上的一致。

  如:He said,“Are you coming tomorrow?”→He asked me if I was coming the next day.

  (3)“三不变”指当直接引语中的第三人称变为间接引语时,人称不变。

  如:He said,“Is she an English teacher?”→ He asked if she was an English teacher.

  另外请同学们注意,直接引语为复数,引述者主语为单数时,间接引语的主语要相应变为复数。

  如:He said,“Are you interested in English?”→ He asked us if we were interested in English.

  总之,人称的转换不是固定的,具体情况具体对待,要符合逻辑。

  二、时态的转换

  直接引语转换为间接引语时,主句中的谓语动词如果是过去时,从句(即间接引语部分)中的谓语动词在时态方面要做相应的变化,变成过去时范畴的各种时态(实际这也是宾语从句对时态的要求),变化如下:

  如:“I am very glad to visit your school”,she said. →She said she was very glad to visit our school.

  Tom said,“We are listening to the pop music.”→ Tom said that they were listening to the pop music.

  Mother asked,“Have you finished your homework

  before you watch TV?” → Mother asked me whether I had finished my homework before I watched TV.

  He asked the conductor,“Where shall I get off to change to a No. 3 bus?”→ He asked the conductor where he would get off to change to a No. 3 bus.

  “Why did she refuse to go there?” the teacher asked. →The teacher asked why she had refused to go there.

  三、 句子结构的变化

  1. 直接引语为陈述句时,用连词that引导,that在口语中常省略。主句的谓语动词可用said,也可用told来代替。请注意,可以说said that, said to sb. that或者told sb. that,不可直接说told that。

  如:He said,“I have been to the Great Wall.”→He said to us that he had been to the Great Wall.

  He said,“I’ll give you an examination next Monday.”→He told us that he would give us an examination the next Monday.

  如果间接引语是由that引导的两个或两个以上的并列从句,第一个连词可以省略,以后的连词一般不省略,以免混乱。

  如:The doctor said,“You are not seriously ill, you will be better soon.”→The doctor said(that)I was not seriously ill and that I would be better soon.

  2. 直接引语为一般疑问句时,间接引语用连词whether或if引导,原主句中的谓语动词said要改为asked,语序是陈述句的语序,这一点非常重要。

  如:He said,“Do you have any difficulty with

  pronunciation?”→He asked(me) whether/if I had any difficulty with my pronunciation.

  He said,“You are interested in English, aren’t you?”→He asked whether I was interested in English.

  3. 直接引语为选择疑问句时,间接引语用whether...or...表达,而不用if...or...,也不用either...or...,语序是陈述句语序。

  如:He asked,“Do you speak English or French?”→ He asked me whether I spoke English or French.

  I asked,“Will you take bus or take train?”→ I asked him whether he would take bus or take train.

  4. 直接引语为特殊疑问句时,原来的疑问词作为间接引语的连词,主句的谓语动词用ask(sb.)来表达,语序改为陈述句语序。

  如:He asked,“What’s your name?”→He asked(me)what my name was.

  He asked us,“How many car factories have been built in your country?”→He asked us how many car factories had been built in our country.

  5. 直接引语为祈使句时,间接引语用带to的不定式表达,谓语动词常是ask, advise, tell, warn, order,request等。如ask sb. to do(用于肯定祈使句),ask sb. not to do(用于否定祈使句)。不定式短语中的时间状语、地点状语、人称及时态都做相应的变化。

  如:He said,“Be seated, please.”→ He asked us to be seated.

  “Do be careful with your handwritting.”he said →He told me to be careful with my handwriting.

  “Don’t touch anything in the lab without permission”,the teacher said. → The teacher warned the students not to touch anything in the lab without permission.

  6. 有些直接引语含有“建议”“劝告”的祈使句,可用suggest,insist,offer等动词转述。

  如:He said,“Let’s have a rest.”→He suggested us having a rest.

  He said,“Let me help you.”→ He offered to help me.

  7. 当直接引语形式上是疑问句,有表示“请求”“建议”的意义时,可用ask sb. to do sth.,advise sb. to do sth.等形式转述。

  如:“Would you mind opening the door?”he asked. →He asked me to open the door.

  “Why not going out for a walk?”he asked us. →He advised us to go out for a walk.

  8. 直接引语是感叹句时,可用what或how引导,也可用that引导。

  如:She said,“What a lovely day it is!” → She said what a lovely day it was. /She said that it was a lovely day.

  四、从句时态无须改变的情况

  1. 当主句的谓语动词是一般现在时时

  如:He always says,“I am tired out.”→ He always says that he is tired out.

  2. 当主句的谓语动词是一般将来时时

  如:He will say,“I’ll try my best to help you.”→ He will say that he will try his best to help me.

  3. 当直接引语部分带有具体的过去时间状语时

  如:He said,“I went to college in 1994.”→ He told us that he went to college in 1994.

  4. 当直接引语中有以when, while引导的从句,表示过去的时间时

  如:He said,“When I was a child, I usually played football after school.” →He said that when he was a child, he usually played football after school.

  5. 当直接引语是客观真理或自然现象时

  如:Our teacher said to us,“Light travels faster than sound.” →Our teacher told us that light travels faster than sound.

  6. 当直接引语是谚语、格言时

  如:He said,“Practice makes perfect.” → He said that practice makes perfect.

  7.当直接引语中有情态动词should,would,could,had better,would rather,might,must,ought to,used to,need时

  如:The doctor said,“You’d better drink plenty of water.” → The doctor said I’d better drink plenty of water.

  He said, “She must be a teacher.” → He said that she must be a teacher.

  He said,“She ought to have arrived her office by now.” →He said that she ought to have arrived her office by then.

  She asked,“Must I take the medicine?” → She asked if she had to take the medicine.

  8. 除以上情况外,直接引语与间接引语的转换要因实际情况而定,不能机械地照搬。如果当地转述,here不必改为there,动词come不必改为go。如果当天转述yesterday,tomorrow,this afternoon等均不必改变。

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